Composites for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit: Materials, Design, Manufacturing

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DEStech Publications, Inc, 2011 - Technology & Engineering - 419 pages
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Technical explanation of composite materials in vehicle design and manufacture Covers all phases of composites design, formulation, fabrication, and testing Features hundreds of case studies and hard-to-find formulas and analytical data Detailed information on resins, preforms, lightweighting, biobased materials -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This technical book provides a comprehensive explanation of how advanced composite materials, including FRPs, reinforced thermoplastics, carbon-based composites and many others are designed, processed and utilized in exterior, interior, under-the-hood, structural, semi-structural and non-structural components in passenger cars, performance cars, trucks, motorbikes, and mass transit vehicles. The book clarifies how the material properties of composites can be optimized to decrease weight, expand design options, improve crashworthiness, and reduce fuel consumption in response to CAFE and other regulations. The many case studies and equation-based analyses in this book are intended to assist engineers and others in the selection of materials and the fabrication of vehicle parts.Table of Contents: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 History and Legislative Actions 1.3 The Case for Lightweighting 1.4 Technological Barriers 1.5 Advantages and Opportunities 1.6 Integral Factors 1.7 Summary 1.8 References CHAPTER 2: POLYMER RESINS, ADDITIVES AND SANDWICH CORES FOR AUTOMOTIVE, MASS TRANSIT AND HEAVY TRUCKS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Polymer Resins: Thermoset and Thermoplastic 2.3 Thermoset Polymer Composites 2.4 Thermoplastic Resins 2.5 Additives 2.6 Structural Foams and Core Materials 2.7 Summary 2.8 References CHAPTER 3: REINFORCEMENTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 3.1 Reinforcing Fibers 3.2 Reinforcement Length Scales and Forms 3.3 Glass Fibers 3.4 Carbon or Graphite Fibers 3.5 Aramid (Kevlar") Fibers 3.6 High-Strength Polyolefin Fibers 3.7 Basalt Fibers 3.8 Summary5 3.9 References CHAPTER 4: MATERIAL FORMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE, HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT 4.1 Need for Intermediate Material Forms 4.2 Preforming 4.3 Intermediate Material Form for Thermoplastic Composites 4.4 Summary 4.5 References CHAPTER 5: DISCONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT-BASED PROCESSES FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 5.1 Discontinuous Forms 5.2 Glass Mat Thermoplastic Composites (GMT) 5.3 Long Fiber Thermoplastics (LFT) 5.4 Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) 5.5 Compression Molding 5.6 Programmable Powdered Preform Process (P4) 5.7 Structural Foam Molding 5.8 Other Application Case Studies with Discontinuous Fiber Composites 5.9 Exterior 5.10 Interior 5.11 Lightweighting Fuel Cells 5.12 Summary 5.13 References CHAPTER 6: CONTINUOUS FIBER REINFORCEMENT BASED PROCESSES FOR AUTOMOTIVE, HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT 6.1 Continuous Fiber Composites 6.2 Preforming 6.3 Continuous Fiber Processes for Automotive and Transportation Applications 6.4 Application Case Studies with Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 6.5 Summary 6.6 References CHAPTER 7: MECHANICS AND DESIGN TIPS 7.1 Test Methods and Specific Properties 7.2 Conversion Between Volume and Weight Fractions 7.3 Stiffness and Strength Prediction of Discontinuous and Continuous Fiber Composites 7.4 Stiffness Equivalency 7.5 Sandwich Composites 7.6 Ribbed LFT and Tape Reinforced LFT 7.7 Summary 7.8 References CHAPTER 8: COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS 8.1 Background 8.2 Production Requirements 8.3 Representative Part 8.4 Cost Analysis 8.5 Economic Benefit for the Material Supplier 8.6 Summary 8.7 References CHAPTER 9: CARBON FIBER 9.1 Background 9.2 Challenges 9.3 Typical Properties of Automotive Carbon Fiber Composites 9.4 Carbon Fibers in Cars 9.5 Summary 9.6 References CHAPTER 10: PERFORMANCE CARS 10.1 Background 10.2 Performance Cars 10.3 Hypercar 10.4 Futuristic Concept Cars 10.5 Race Motorbikes 10.6 Summary 10.7 References CHAPTER 11: HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT 11.1 Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMVs) 11.2 Role of Composites in Mass Transit 11.3 Composite Subelements for Mass Transit 11.4 Summary 11.5 References CHAPTER 12: JOINING AND ADHESIVES 12.1 Joining and Bonding Strategies 12.2 Adhesive Bonding 12.3 Fusion Bonding/Welding 12.4 Joining in Automotive and Transportation Components 12.5 Summary 12.6 References CHAPTER 13: BIOCOMPOSITES, RECYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS 13.1 Need for Environmentally Friendly Materials 13.2 History 13.3 Regulations 13.4 Green Materials/Natural Fibers 13.5 Bio-Resins and Nanoclay Modified Resins 13.6 Nanocomposites 13.7 Intermediate Forms 13.8 Examples of Natural Fiber and Biocomposite Automotive Parts 13.9 Recycled Composite Scrap for Transportation 13.10 Summary 13.11 References CHAPTER 14: OVERALL SUMMARY 14.1 Overall Trends 14.2 Opportunities and Challenges Index
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
12 History and Legislative Actions
2
13 The Case of Lightweighting
5
14 Technological Barriers
8
15 Advantages and Opportunities
9
16 Integral Factors
14
17 Summary
15
POLYMER RESINS ADDITIVES AND SANDWICH CORES FOR AUTOMOTIVE MASS TRANSIT AND HEAVY TRUCKS
17
73 Stiffness and Strength Prediction of Discontinuous and Continuous Fiver Composites
224
74 Stiffness Equivalency
232
75 Sandwich Composites
234
76 Ribbed LFT and Tape Reinforced LFT
239
77 Summary
243
COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS ANALYSIS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS
245
82 Production Requirements
246
84 Cost Analysis
247

23 Thermoset Polymer Composites
19
24 Thermoplastic Resins
25
25 Additives
43
26 Structural Foams and Core Materials
50
27 Summary
55
28 References
58
REINFORCEMENTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS
61
33 Glass Fibers
67
34 Carbon or Graphite Fibers
69
35 Aramid Kevlar Fibers
71
36 HighStrength Polyolefin Fibers
72
37 Basalt Fibers
73
38 Summary
75
MATERIAL FORMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT
77
41 Need for Intermediate Material Forms
78
43 Intermediate Material Form for Thermoplastic Composites
80
44 Summary
86
DISCONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENTBASED PROCESSES FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS
87
52 Glass Mat Thermoplastic Composites GMT
88
53 Long Fiber Thermoplastics LFT
99
54 Sheet Molding Compound SMC
127
55 Compression Molding
131
56 Programmable Powdered Preform Process P4
134
57 Structural Foam Molding
137
58 Other Application Case Studies with Discontinuous Fiber Composites
138
59 Exterior
155
510 Interior
160
512 Summary
165
CONTINUOUS FIBER REINFORCEMENT BASED PROCESSES FOR AUTOMOTIVE HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT
173
63 Continuous Fiber Processes for Automotive and Transportation Applications
180
64 Application Case Studies with Continuous Fiber Reinforcements
200
65 Summary
212
MECHANICS AND DESIGN TIPS
219
72 Conversion Between Volume and Weight Fractions
221
85 Economic Benefit for the Material Supplier
249
86 Summary
251
87 References
252
CARBON FIBER
253
92 Challenges
254
93 Typical Properties of Automotive Carbon Fiber Composites
256
94 Carbon Fiber in Cars
257
95 Summary
264
PERFORMANCE CARS
267
103 Hypercar
286
105 Race Motorbikes
287
106 Summary
288
HEAVY TRUCKS AND MASS TRANSIT
291
112 Role of Composites in Mass Trasit
307
113 Composite Subelements for Mass Transit
312
114 Summary
343
115 References
344
JOINING AND ADHESIVES
347
123 Fusion BondingWelding
359
124 Joining in Automotive and Transportation Components
365
125 Summary
370
BIOCOMPOSITES RECYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
373
134 Green MaterialNatural Fibers
374
135 BioResins and Nanoclay Modified Resins
382
136 Nanocomposites
384
137 Intermediate Forms
385
138 Examples of Natural Fiber and Biocomposite Automotive Parts
390
139 Recycled Composite Scrap for Transportation
397
1310 Summary
400
1311 References
401
OVERALL SUMMARY
405
142 Opportunities and Challenges
406
Index
411
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About the author (2011)

Uday Vaidya, Ph.D, University of Alabama, Birmingham

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