Computational Maps in the Visual Cortex

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 9, 2005 - Science - 538 pages
Biological structures can be seen as collections of special devices coordinated by a matrix of organization. Devices are dif?cult to evolve and are meticulously conserved through the eons. Organization is a ?uid medium capable of rapid adaptation. The brain carries organizational ?uidity to the extreme. In its context, typical devices are ion channels, transmitters and receptors, signaling pathways, whole individual neurons or speci?c circuit patterns. The border line between what is to be called device and what a feat of organization is ?owing, given that in time organized s- systems solidify into devices. In spite of the neurosciences’ traditional concentration on devices, their aiming point on the horizon must be to understand the principles by which the nervous system ties vast arrays of internal and external variables into one coherent purposeful functional whole — to understand the brain’s mechanism of organization. For that purpose a crucial methodology is in silico experimentation. Computer simulation is a convenient tool for testing functional ideas, a sharp weapon for d- tinguishing those that work from those that don’t. To be sure, many alternatives can only be decided by direct experiment on the substrate, not by modeling. However, if a functional idea can be debunked as ?awed once tried in silico it would be a waste to make it the subject of a decade of experimentation or discussion. The venture of understanding the function and organization of the visual system illustrates this danger.
 

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Contents

Introduction
3
Biological Background
15
Computational Foundations 39
38
A Computational Map Model of V1
67
Development of Maps and Connections 85
84
Understanding Plasticity
133
The Tilt Aftereffect
155
A Hierarchical Model 175
174
14
307
Computational Directions
375
Conclusion
409
B Reduced LISSOM Simulation Specifications
427
PGLISSOM Simulation Specifications 435
434
F Visual Coding Simulation Specifications
441
G Calculating Feature Maps
445
Retinotopic Maps
449

Orientation Maps
189
Face Detection
203
A Perceptual Grouping Model 241
240
Temporal Coding
257
Contour Integration 273
272

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