## Computer Simulation of Aerial Target Radar Scattering, Recognition, Detection, and TrackingHere's a ground-breaking new book that provides you with the knowledge you need to perform effective computer simulation of scattering for the real targets and conditions of radio wave propagation. By replacing field tests with the computer simulation methods presented in this unique resource, you save time and money in the early stages of research and development. Supplemented with 283 equations and 121 illustrations, you get practical guidance in estimating the effect of various signatures of new radar with target recognition; evaluating and comparing the effectiveness and complexity of recognition algorithms before they are actually introduced into radar; formulating requirements to radar subsystems and evaluating their tolerances; and predicting future radar performance. What's more, the book helps you perform initial simulation of the recognition algorithm in various conditions, where the practical receiving of experimental data is restricted. Other key discussions include the theory of target recognition, results of studying various recognition methods, and simulation in radar detection and tracking. |

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### Contents

Foundations of Scattering Simulation on Centimeter and Decimeter Waves | 1 |

111 Scattering Phenomenon and Its Main Radar Characteristics | 2 |

112 Doppler Transform for Signals of Arbitrary BandwidthDuration Product | 6 |

12 Analog Methods of Scattering Simulation | 8 |

13 Computer Methods of Scattering Simulation | 9 |

132 Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Neglecting Earths Curvature | 10 |

133 Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Accounting for Earths Curvature | 14 |

134 Peculiarities of the Simplest Component Method Employment | 16 |

42 Nonparametric Recognition Algorithms | 154 |

422 Recognition Voting Algorithms | 156 |

423 Simulation of Nonparametric Recognition Algorithms | 157 |

43 Recognition Algorithms Based on the Precursory Data Transform | 159 |

431 Wavelet Transform and Wavelets | 160 |

432 Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Use in Recognition | 161 |

433 Simulation of Wavelet Transforms and Evaluation of Their Applicability in Recognition | 162 |

44 Neural Recognition Algorithms | 164 |

135 General Equations of Scattering for the FarField Zone and Arbitrary Signal BandwidthDuration Product | 18 |

136 Use of the Simplest Components Initial Data | 20 |

137 Application Limits of the Simplest Component Simulation Method | 36 |

14 Peculiarities of the Target Motion Simulation | 37 |

142 Statistical Properties of Atmosphere and Dynamics of Target Atmosphere Interaction | 39 |

15 Peculiarities of Simulation of Fast Rotating Elements | 42 |

152 Simulation of JEM Neglecting Shadowing Effects | 48 |

153 JEM Simulation Taking into Account the Shadowing Effect and Related Topics | 52 |

154 Simulation of PRM | 53 |

155 Comparison of Different Approximations of the Blades in JEM and PRM Simulation | 55 |

16 Radar Quality Indices to Be Simulated | 56 |

162 Quality Indices of Detection and Tracking | 60 |

Review and Simulation of Recognition Features Signatures for Wideband Illumination | 63 |

22 Simulation of Target Range Profiles and RCSs for Wideband Chirp Illumination | 64 |

222 Variants of Signatures on the Basis of Range Profiles | 66 |

223 Simulation of the Target RPs | 69 |

224 Simulation of the Target RCS for Wideband Illumination | 74 |

225 Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Data | 75 |

23 RangePolarization and RangeFrequency Signatures Simulation for the Chirp Illumination | 80 |

232 RangeFrequency Signatures and Their Simulation | 85 |

24 Target Range Profiles for Wideband SF Illumination | 87 |

241 Ambiguity Functions of SF Signals with Moderate Bandwidth Duration Products | 88 |

242 Ambiguity Functions of Separated SF Signal with Very Large BandwidthDuration Product | 91 |

243 Matched Processing of Separated SF Signal with Very Large BandwidthDuration Product | 92 |

244 Simulated and Experimental RPs for Separated SF Illumination | 95 |

25 Targets 2D Images | 100 |

252 ISAR Processing on the Basis of Reference Target Elements | 101 |

253 ISAR Processing on the Basis of the WV Transform | 103 |

254 Examples of 2D Image Simulation | 105 |

References | 109 |

Review and Simulation of Recognition Features Signatures for Narrowband Illumination | 111 |

32 RCS and Other Parameters of PSM | 112 |

322 Other Parameters of the Polarization Scattering Matrix and Their Simulation | 114 |

33 Rotational Modulation Spectra | 117 |

331 Rotational Modulation Spectra of Various Targets | 118 |

332 Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various Wavelengths | 119 |

334 Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various PRFs and Coherent Integration Times | 121 |

335 Comparison of Simulated Spectra with Experimental Ones | 123 |

34 Correlation Factors of Fluctuations Via Frequency Diversity | 124 |

References | 125 |

Review and Simulation of Recognition Algorithms Operation | 127 |

411 Basic Bayesian Algorithms of Recognition for the Quasisimple Cost Matrix | 128 |

412 Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms | 130 |

413 Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to the Target Trajectory and RCS | 132 |

414 Component of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of Range Profiles | 136 |

415 Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of the RMS and Other Signatures | 139 |

416 Use of cpdf Instead of Sets of RPs RMSs or Other Signatures | 140 |

417 Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using the Simplest Standard RPs and Other Signatures | 142 |

418 Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Individualized Standard RPs and cpdf of RPs | 147 |

419 Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Rotational Modulation of a Narrowband Signal | 150 |

4110 Evaluation of Information Measures for Various Recognition Signatures and Their Combinations | 152 |

441 Structures and Optimization Criterion for ANNs | 165 |

442 Gradient Algorithms for Training the FANN | 169 |

443 Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Training | 171 |

444 Simulation of Target Type Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Training | 174 |

445 Some Conclusions from Simulation of Neural Algorithms with Gradient Training | 176 |

446 Perspectives of Evolutionary Genetic Training | 177 |

Peculiarity of Backscattering Simulation and Recognition for LowAltitude Targets | 181 |

511 Basic Parameters of Empirical Simulation | 182 |

512 Calculation of the Clutter Complex Amplitude | 184 |

513 Use of Digital Terrain Maps in Simulation | 186 |

52 Simulation of Distortions of Signal Amplitude and Structure | 192 |

522 Approximate Solution of the Scattering Problem at the Earth Atmosphere Interface | 194 |

523 Variants of Approximate Solutions of the Scattering Problem | 195 |

525 The Influence of Surface Reflections on the Amplitude and Structure of Radar Signals | 199 |

53 Problem of the Wideband Target Recognition Under Conditions of Signal Distortions | 202 |

531 Target Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by MTI Only | 206 |

532 Target Type and Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by Underlying Surface Only | 209 |

References | 213 |

Review and Simulation of Signal Detection and Operation of Simplest Algorithms of Target Tracking | 215 |

611 Background Details and Statement of the Problem | 216 |

612 Variants of Simulation of Signal Detection on the Noise Background | 218 |

613 The Simulated RCS pdf and Comparison with Its A Priori pdf | 219 |

62 Coordinate and Doppler Glint in the Narrowband Illumination | 220 |

621 The Extended Target Concept and Basic Equations of Target Glint | 221 |

622 Examples of the Theoretical Analysis of Glint for TwoElement Target Model | 225 |

623 Possible Simplification of Angular Glint Simulation for Real Targets and Optimal Radar | 230 |

624 Simulation Examples for Real Targets and Radar | 231 |

63 Some Aspects of the Wideband Signal Use in Detection and Tracking | 232 |

631 Simulation of Target Detection with Wideband Signals | 234 |

632 Simulation of Target Range Glint in a Single Wideband Measurement | 236 |

633 Simulation of Target Range Glint in Wideband Tracking | 237 |

References | 239 |

Some Expansions of the Scattering Simulation | 241 |

71 Scattering Effects for Stationary Monochromatic Illumination of Targets | 242 |

711 Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces | 243 |

712 Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Imperfectly Conducting Surfaces | 244 |

713 The Plane Waves in Parallel Uniform Isotropic Infinite Layers | 245 |

714 The Scattered Fields of Huygens Elementary Radiators in Approximation of Physical Optics | 250 |

715 The Facet Method of Calculating the Surface Integral and Cubature Formulas | 251 |

716 Example of RCS Calculation of Targets Uncovered and Covered with RAM for Small Bistatic Angles | 254 |

717 Evaluation of RCS of Opaque Objects for Bistatic Angles Approaching 180 | 257 |

718 Principles of Calculation of RCS for SharpCornered Objects Uncovered and Covered with RAM | 258 |

72 Some Calculating Methods for Nonstationary Illumination of Targets | 267 |

722 Calculating Bistatic Responses of Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces Using the Physical Optics Approach | 268 |

723 Example of Calculating the HFUSR of Ellipsoids with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces | 271 |

724 Example of Calculating the Transient Response of an Aircraft Model with Conducting Surface for a Wideband Signal | 275 |

277 | |

List of Acronyms | 279 |

About the Authors | 281 |

283 | |

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Computer Simulation of Aerial Target Radar Scattering, Recognition ... Yakov D. Shirman No preview available - 2002 |

### Common terms and phrases

Aerial Target aircraft ALCM algorithm ambiguity function amplitude antenna approximation artificial neural network aspect angle aspect sector backscattering bandwidth bistatic angle bistatic radar blade bright element calculated CD CD chirp illumination chirp signal coefficient conditional probabilities considered correlation processing correlation sum corresponding cpdf detection deviation distortions doppler frequency ellipsoid equation evaluation experimental IEEE Trans illumination signal large-sized layer matrix method missile monostatic radar narrowband narrowband illumination narrowband signal neural noise obtained parameters passive decoy phase physical optics plane polarization potential SNR probability density function probability of error propagation pulse Radar Recognition radial velocity range profiles ratio Recognition Algorithms rotational modulation spectra samples scattering Section separated SF Shirman shown in Figure signatures spectrum standard RPs subrealizations Target Class Recognition target elements target illumination target motion target types tion type recognition unit vector various wave wavelength wideband wideband signal