Computer Simulation of Aerial Target Radar Scattering, Recognition, Detection, and Tracking

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Artech House, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 307 pages
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Here's a ground-breaking new book that provides you with the knowledge you need to perform effective computer simulation of scattering for the real targets and conditions of radio wave propagation. By replacing field tests with the computer simulation methods presented in this unique resource, you save time and money in the early stages of research and development. Supplemented with 283 equations and 121 illustrations, you get practical guidance in estimating the effect of various signatures of new radar with target recognition; evaluating and comparing the effectiveness and complexity of recognition algorithms before they are actually introduced into radar; formulating requirements to radar subsystems and evaluating their tolerances; and predicting future radar performance. What's more, the book helps you perform initial simulation of the recognition algorithm in various conditions, where the practical receiving of experimental data is restricted. Other key discussions include the theory of target recognition, results of studying various recognition methods, and simulation in radar detection and tracking.
 

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Contents

Foundations of Scattering Simulation on Centimeter and Decimeter Waves
1
111 Scattering Phenomenon and Its Main Radar Characteristics
2
112 Doppler Transform for Signals of Arbitrary BandwidthDuration Product
6
12 Analog Methods of Scattering Simulation
8
13 Computer Methods of Scattering Simulation
9
132 Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Neglecting Earths Curvature
10
133 Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Transforms Accounting for Earths Curvature
14
134 Peculiarities of the Simplest Component Method Employment
16
42 Nonparametric Recognition Algorithms
154
422 Recognition Voting Algorithms
156
423 Simulation of Nonparametric Recognition Algorithms
157
43 Recognition Algorithms Based on the Precursory Data Transform
159
431 Wavelet Transform and Wavelets
160
432 Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Use in Recognition
161
433 Simulation of Wavelet Transforms and Evaluation of Their Applicability in Recognition
162
44 Neural Recognition Algorithms
164

135 General Equations of Scattering for the FarField Zone and Arbitrary Signal BandwidthDuration Product
18
136 Use of the Simplest Components Initial Data
20
137 Application Limits of the Simplest Component Simulation Method
36
14 Peculiarities of the Target Motion Simulation
37
142 Statistical Properties of Atmosphere and Dynamics of Target Atmosphere Interaction
39
15 Peculiarities of Simulation of Fast Rotating Elements
42
152 Simulation of JEM Neglecting Shadowing Effects
48
153 JEM Simulation Taking into Account the Shadowing Effect and Related Topics
52
154 Simulation of PRM
53
155 Comparison of Different Approximations of the Blades in JEM and PRM Simulation
55
16 Radar Quality Indices to Be Simulated
56
162 Quality Indices of Detection and Tracking
60
Review and Simulation of Recognition Features Signatures for Wideband Illumination
63
22 Simulation of Target Range Profiles and RCSs for Wideband Chirp Illumination
64
222 Variants of Signatures on the Basis of Range Profiles
66
223 Simulation of the Target RPs
69
224 Simulation of the Target RCS for Wideband Illumination
74
225 Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Data
75
23 RangePolarization and RangeFrequency Signatures Simulation for the Chirp Illumination
80
232 RangeFrequency Signatures and Their Simulation
85
24 Target Range Profiles for Wideband SF Illumination
87
241 Ambiguity Functions of SF Signals with Moderate Bandwidth Duration Products
88
242 Ambiguity Functions of Separated SF Signal with Very Large BandwidthDuration Product
91
243 Matched Processing of Separated SF Signal with Very Large BandwidthDuration Product
92
244 Simulated and Experimental RPs for Separated SF Illumination
95
25 Targets 2D Images
100
252 ISAR Processing on the Basis of Reference Target Elements
101
253 ISAR Processing on the Basis of the WV Transform
103
254 Examples of 2D Image Simulation
105
References
109
Review and Simulation of Recognition Features Signatures for Narrowband Illumination
111
32 RCS and Other Parameters of PSM
112
322 Other Parameters of the Polarization Scattering Matrix and Their Simulation
114
33 Rotational Modulation Spectra
117
331 Rotational Modulation Spectra of Various Targets
118
332 Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various Wavelengths
119
334 Rotational Modulation Spectra for Various PRFs and Coherent Integration Times
121
335 Comparison of Simulated Spectra with Experimental Ones
123
34 Correlation Factors of Fluctuations Via Frequency Diversity
124
References
125
Review and Simulation of Recognition Algorithms Operation
127
411 Basic Bayesian Algorithms of Recognition for the Quasisimple Cost Matrix
128
412 Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms
130
413 Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to the Target Trajectory and RCS
132
414 Component of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of Range Profiles
136
415 Components of Additive Bayesian Recognition Algorithms Related to Correlation Processing of the RMS and Other Signatures
139
416 Use of cpdf Instead of Sets of RPs RMSs or Other Signatures
140
417 Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using the Simplest Standard RPs and Other Signatures
142
418 Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Individualized Standard RPs and cpdf of RPs
147
419 Simulation of Target Type and Class Recognition Using Rotational Modulation of a Narrowband Signal
150
4110 Evaluation of Information Measures for Various Recognition Signatures and Their Combinations
152
441 Structures and Optimization Criterion for ANNs
165
442 Gradient Algorithms for Training the FANN
169
443 Simulation of Target Class Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Training
171
444 Simulation of Target Type Recognition Using Neural Algorithm with Gradient Training
174
445 Some Conclusions from Simulation of Neural Algorithms with Gradient Training
176
446 Perspectives of Evolutionary Genetic Training
177
Peculiarity of Backscattering Simulation and Recognition for LowAltitude Targets
181
511 Basic Parameters of Empirical Simulation
182
512 Calculation of the Clutter Complex Amplitude
184
513 Use of Digital Terrain Maps in Simulation
186
52 Simulation of Distortions of Signal Amplitude and Structure
192
522 Approximate Solution of the Scattering Problem at the Earth Atmosphere Interface
194
523 Variants of Approximate Solutions of the Scattering Problem
195
525 The Influence of Surface Reflections on the Amplitude and Structure of Radar Signals
199
53 Problem of the Wideband Target Recognition Under Conditions of Signal Distortions
202
531 Target Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by MTI Only
206
532 Target Type and Class Recognition for the RP Distortions by Underlying Surface Only
209
References
213
Review and Simulation of Signal Detection and Operation of Simplest Algorithms of Target Tracking
215
611 Background Details and Statement of the Problem
216
612 Variants of Simulation of Signal Detection on the Noise Background
218
613 The Simulated RCS pdf and Comparison with Its A Priori pdf
219
62 Coordinate and Doppler Glint in the Narrowband Illumination
220
621 The Extended Target Concept and Basic Equations of Target Glint
221
622 Examples of the Theoretical Analysis of Glint for TwoElement Target Model
225
623 Possible Simplification of Angular Glint Simulation for Real Targets and Optimal Radar
230
624 Simulation Examples for Real Targets and Radar
231
63 Some Aspects of the Wideband Signal Use in Detection and Tracking
232
631 Simulation of Target Detection with Wideband Signals
234
632 Simulation of Target Range Glint in a Single Wideband Measurement
236
633 Simulation of Target Range Glint in Wideband Tracking
237
References
239
Some Expansions of the Scattering Simulation
241
71 Scattering Effects for Stationary Monochromatic Illumination of Targets
242
711 Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces
243
712 Expressions of Scattered Field for Targets with Imperfectly Conducting Surfaces
244
713 The Plane Waves in Parallel Uniform Isotropic Infinite Layers
245
714 The Scattered Fields of Huygens Elementary Radiators in Approximation of Physical Optics
250
715 The Facet Method of Calculating the Surface Integral and Cubature Formulas
251
716 Example of RCS Calculation of Targets Uncovered and Covered with RAM for Small Bistatic Angles
254
717 Evaluation of RCS of Opaque Objects for Bistatic Angles Approaching 180
257
718 Principles of Calculation of RCS for SharpCornered Objects Uncovered and Covered with RAM
258
72 Some Calculating Methods for Nonstationary Illumination of Targets
267
722 Calculating Bistatic Responses of Targets with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces Using the Physical Optics Approach
268
723 Example of Calculating the HFUSR of Ellipsoids with Perfectly Conducting Surfaces
271
724 Example of Calculating the Transient Response of an Aircraft Model with Conducting Surface for a Wideband Signal
275
References
277
List of Acronyms
279
About the Authors
281
Index
283
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