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An Overview of Computer Systems
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alternatives application programs assembly language backup batch system batch-processing buffer capabilities central processing unit changes Chapter checks cobol compiler complete computer department computer system cost cycle data-processing decision maker digits discussed disk document equipment errors evaluation example execution existing facility Figure flowcharts Fortran gram hardware high-level language impact implementation information systems input input/output inquiry system instruction interactive interrupt inventory involved logical records machine machine-language magnetic major master file ment microprogramming models multiprogramming necessary needed online system operating system organization output packages performance PL/i pointers possible primary memory primary storage problems procedures produce punched cards puter random-access file response retrieval rotational delay secondary storage sequential service bureau simulation speed storage devices systems analysis tape techniques terminals time-sharing system tion top management transactions translator updating various