Computer simulation in physical geography
Computer Simulation in Physical Geography Second Edition M.J. Kirkby, University of Leeds, UK, P.S. Naden, Institute of Hydrology, UK, T.P. Burt, University of Oxford, UK and D.P. Butcher, University of Huddersfield, UK Simulation modelling has grown in importance in geographical teaching and project work ever since microcomputers have become widely available. By developing a broad range of usable programs in an environmental context, this second edition of Computer Simulation in Physical Geography may be used both as a physical geography textbook and as a pathway to learning standard programming, since substantial sections of the book are devoted to the design, formulation and best use of programs. The book opens with an introduction to the subject, followed by a series of chapters each of which is devoted to a different type of model, including black box models, process models, mass and energy balance models, and stochastic models. The second half of the book contains methods for model or program formulation and various means of verifying and calibrating models against field data. The choice of an appropriate model for a given situation is considered, together with the building of rationally based computer simulations from geographical assumptions. Example programs are drawn from ecology, hydrology, meteorology and hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, and these give a flavour of current research trends. All programs are contained on a supplementary disk in Microsoft QuickBASIC, QBASIC (standard with DOS 5-0) or GWBASIC (standard with earlier DOS versions). The distinct advantages of this second edition over the first are the major changes that have been made in updating the programs to the more structured environment of QuickBASIC, which also enables the utilisation of the superior CGA, EGA and VGA graphics on current DOS systems.
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Black box models
Mass and energy balance models
6 other sections not shown
analysis aquifer array BASIC basin BBC micro black box models calibration catchment channel Chapter define dimension discharge distribution downslope drainage basin erosion error error function evapo-transpiration example Figure flow diagram forecast fractal function Geomorphologie given GOSUB GOSUB 10000:REM Initialize GOTO GOTO 80 gradient grain graph graphics screen hillslope hydraulic conductivity hydrological IBM PC INDATA input and output Input parameters KINEMATIC WAVE Kirkby length line numbers linear listed loop Lotka-Volterra equations mass balance mass or energy method micro node normally distributed optimized outflow Output parameters overland flow parameter values physical prediction PRINT PROTO RADBAL rainfall raingauge random numbers random values range regression REM calculate REM Data represent RETURN routine runoff scale Section sediment sequence simple simulation model slope soil moisture stochastic model storage equation STORFLO stream string subroutine surface text screen unit hydrograph velocity zero