## Computer simulation of ice breaking by explosion and impact |

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### Contents

LIST OF TABLES | ix |

INTRODUCTION | 1 |

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPUTER CODE | 60 |

10 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

acoustic analysis applied pressure axisymmetric breaking by impact bulk modulus calculated cavity coefficient computer code constructed crack propagation deformation determine developed displacement effect elastic elements elastic material elastic modulus energy equation explosion in air finite element analysis Finite Element Method fractured elements fractured ice fractured volume friction grid ice breaking ice cover ice sheet ice thickness impactor impending velocity increment initial velocity input integration internal forces loading mass matrix method nodal forces nodes nondimensional number of elements option and mass plane strain plotting Poisson's ratio pressure history Pressure response pressure waves quadratic elements radial radius of fracture rate of decay Rc/h scaling laws sea ice shear shear modulus ship shock waves shown in Fig speed stiffness matrix structed Table tensile tensile stresses tests triangles Viscoelastic Vmin w/h3 mg wave propagation weight of impactor Young's modulus