Computing Attitude and Affect in Text: Theory and Applications

Front Cover
James G. Shanahan, Yan Qu, Janyce Wiebe
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 18, 2006 - Computers - 341 pages
Human Language Technology (HLT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems have typically focused on the “factual” aspect of content analysis. Other aspects, including pragmatics, opinion, and style, have received much less attention. However, to achieve an adequate understanding of a text, these aspects cannot be ignored. The chapters in this book address the aspect of subjective opinion, which includes identifying different points of view, identifying different emotive dimensions, and classifying text by opinion. Various conceptual models and computational methods are presented. The models explored in this book include the following: distinguishing attitudes from simple factual assertions; distinguishing between the author’s reports from reports of other people’s opinions; and distinguishing between explicitly and implicitly stated attitudes. In addition, many applications are described that promise to benefit from the ability to understand attitudes and affect, including indexing and retrieval of documents by opinion; automatic question answering about opinions; analysis of sentiment in the media and in discussion groups about consumer products, political issues, etc. ; brand and reputation management; discovering and predicting consumer and voting trends; analyzing client discourse in therapy and counseling; determining relations between scientific texts by finding reasons for citations; generating more appropriate texts and making agents more believable; and creating writers’ aids. The studies reported here are carried out on different languages such as English, French, Japanese, and Portuguese. Difficult challenges remain, however. It can be argued that analyzing attitude and affect in text is an “NLP”-complete problem.
 

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Contents

CONTEXTUAL VALENCE SHIFTERS
1
A COMPUTATIONAL SEMANTIC LEXICON OF FRENCH VERBS OF EMOTION
10
WHERE ATTITUDINAL EXPRESSIONS GET THEIR ATTITUDE
23
GENERALIZING FROM SYNTACTIC PATTERNS TO THE LEXICON
29
ASSOCIATED FEATURES
36
Jane Morris Graeme Hirst 41
40
Wilma Bucci Bernard Maskit
49
MANUAL TAGGING RESULTS
61
GENERATING MOREPOSITIVE AND MORENEGATIVE TEXT
186
RELATED WORK
189
WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION
190
GENERATION
191
EXPERIMENTS
192
EVALUATION
195
CONCLUSION
196
IDENTIFYING INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE USING SYSTEMIC FEATURES Casey Whitelaw Jon Patrick Maria HerkeCouchman
199

PERSPECTIVE QUESTION AND ANSWER CORPUS
77
EVALUATION OF PERSPECTIVE ANNOTATIONS FOR MPQA
83
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
89
EMOTIVE PATTERNS
97
FUTURE WORK
105
Yvette Yannick Mathieu
109
FEELING SYSTEM
116
EVALUATION
122
RELATED WORK
123
EXTRACTING OPINION PROPOSITIONS AND OPINION HOLDERS USING SYNTACTIC AND LEXICAL CUES Steven Bethard Hong Yu Ashle...
125
DATA
127
OPINIONORIENTED WORDS
130
IDENTIFYING OPINION PROPOSITIONS
132
RESULTS
136
ERROR ANALYSIS
138
DISCUSSION
139
Nathanael Chambers Joel Tetreault James Allen 143
142
BACKGROUND
144
ROCHESTER MARRIAGECOUNSELING CORPUS
145
APPROACHES TO TAGGING
146
EVALUATIONS
153
DISCUSSION
154
CATS TOOL
156
RELATED WORK
157
ARGUMENTATIVE ZONING FOR IMPROVED CITATION INDEXING
159
ARGUMENTATIVE ZONING AND AUTHOR AFFECT
161
METADISCOURSE
163
HUMAN ANNOTATION OF AUTHOR AFFECT
165
FEATURES FOR AUTHOR AFFECT
167
CONCLUSION
168
TWO EXPLORATORY STUDIES Norton Trevisan Roman Paul Piwek Ariadne Maria Brito Rizzoni Carvalho
171
INTRODUCTION
172
POLITENESS AND BIAS IN UNCONSTRAINED DIALOGUE SUMMARIZATION
174
POLITENESS AND BIAS IN CONSTRAINED DIALOGUE SUMMARIZATION
178
COMPARISON
180
CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
181
INTRODUCTION
200
REPRESENTING SYSTEM NETWORKS
204
IDENTIFYING REGISTERS
209
CONCLUSION
212
COMPARING THE HISTORICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES
215
INTRODUCTION
216
SYSTEMIC INDICATORS AS TEXTUAL FEATURES
219
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
222
EXAMPLE TEXTS
227
CONCLUSIONS
228
ARGUMENTATIVE ZONING APPLIED TO CRITIQUING NOVICES SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS ValÚria D Feltrim Simone Teufel Maria das Graša...
233
INTRODUCTION
234
USING HEDGES TO CLASSIFY CITATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES
247
A CITATION INDEXING TOOL FOR BIOMEDICAL LITERATURE ANALYSIS
256
TOWARDS A ROBUST METRIC OF POLARITY
264
THE INTERSECTION OF TOPIC AND POLARITY
272
EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS
289
GOOD NEWS OR BAD NEWS? LET THE MARKET DECIDE
297
OPINION POLARITY IDENTIFICATION OF MOVIE REVIEWS
302
RELATED RESEARCH
304
PROBABILISTIC APPROACHES TO POLARITY IDENTIFICATION
305
FEATURES FOR ANALYSIS
306
PART OF SPEECH FEATURE SELECTION
307
EXPERIMENTS
308
SYNONYMY AND HYPERNYMY FEATURE GENERALIZATION
312
SELECTION BY RANKINGR
314
CONCLUSION
315
MULTIDOCUMENT VIEWPOINT SUMMARIZATION FOCUSED ON FACTS OPINION AND KNOWLEDGE Yohei Seki Koji Eguchi Noriko Ka...
317
INTRODUCTION
318
MULTIDOCUMENT VIEWPOINT SUMMARIZATION WITH SUMMARY TYPES
319
SENTENCETYPE ANNOTATION
323
GENRE CLASSIFICATION
325
EXPERIMENT RESULTS
328
CONCLUSION
333
INDEX
337
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