Computing Attitude and Affect in Text: Theory and Applications

Front Cover
James G. Shanahan, Yan Qu, Janyce Wiebe
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 22, 2005 - Computers - 341 pages
Human Language Technology (HLT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems have typically focused on the “factual” aspect of content analysis. Other aspects, including pragmatics, opinion, and style, have received much less attention. However, to achieve an adequate understanding of a text, these aspects cannot be ignored. The chapters in this book address the aspect of subjective opinion, which includes identifying different points of view, identifying different emotive dimensions, and classifying text by opinion. Various conceptual models and computational methods are presented. The models explored in this book include the following: distinguishing attitudes from simple factual assertions; distinguishing between the author’s reports from reports of other people’s opinions; and distinguishing between explicitly and implicitly stated attitudes. In addition, many applications are described that promise to benefit from the ability to understand attitudes and affect, including indexing and retrieval of documents by opinion; automatic question answering about opinions; analysis of sentiment in the media and in discussion groups about consumer products, political issues, etc. ; brand and reputation management; discovering and predicting consumer and voting trends; analyzing client discourse in therapy and counseling; determining relations between scientific texts by finding reasons for citations; generating more appropriate texts and making agents more believable; and creating writers’ aids. The studies reported here are carried out on different languages such as English, French, Japanese, and Portuguese. Difficult challenges remain, however. It can be argued that analyzing attitude and affect in text is an “NLP”-complete problem.
 

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Contents

Contextual Valence Shifters
1
2 From Simple Valence to Contextually Determined Valence
2
3 Contextual Valence Shifters
3
4 Conclusion
9
Conveying Attitude with Reported Speech
11
2 Evidential Analysis of Reported Speech
12
3 Profile Structure
14
4 Extended Example
16
1 Introduction
172
Politeness and Bias in Unconstrained Dialogue Summarization
174
Politeness and Bias in Constrained Dialogue Summarization
178
4 Comparison
180
5 Conclusion and Outlook
181
Generating MorePositive and MoreNegative Text
187
2 Related Work
189
4 Word Sense Disambiguation
190

5 Source List Annotation
17
6 Extension to Other Attribution
20
Where Attitudinal Expressions Get their Attitude
23
2 Starting Points Prototypical Attitudinal Expressions
24
Moves
25
Situational Reference
26
8 Using Syntactic Patterns more Systematically
28
9 Generalizing from Syntactic Patterns to the Lexicon
29
Analysis of Linguistic Features Associated with Point of View for Generating Stylistically Appropriate Text
33
2 Perspectives in Corpus
34
3 Associated Features
36
4 Implications for Natural Language Generation and Automatic Recognition of Point of View
38
The Subjectivity of Lexical Cohesion in Text
41
2 Theoretical Background
42
3 Experimental Study
43
4 Discussion
45
A Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary
49
1 Introduction
50
2 Methods
52
3 Results
58
Certainty Identification in Texts Categorization Model and Manual Tagging Results
61
1 Analytical Framework
62
2 Proposed Certainty Categorization Model
65
3 Empirical Study
68
4 Applications
74
Evaluating an Opinion Annotation Scheme Using a New MultiPerspective Question and Answer Corpus
77
2 LowLevel Perspective Information
78
3 The MPQA NRRC Corpus
80
5 Evaluation of Perspective Annotations for MPQA
83
6 Conclusions and Future Work
89
Validating the Coverage of Lexical Resources for Affect Analysis and Automatically Classifying New Words along Semantic Axes
93
1 Introduction
94
2 The Current Clairvoyance Affect Lexicon
95
3 Emotive Patterns
97
4 Scoring the Intensity of Candidate Affect Words
101
5 Future Work
105
6 Conclusions
106
A Computational Semantic Lexicon of French Verbs of Emotion
109
3 FEELING System
116
4 Evaluation
122
5 Related Work
123
Extracting Opinion Propositions and Opinion Holders using Syntactic and Lexical Cues
125
2 Data
127
3 OpinionOriented Words
130
4 Identifying Opinion Propositions
132
5 Results
136
6 Error Analysis
138
7 Discussion
139
Approaches for Automatically Tagging Affect
143
2 Background
144
3 Rochester MarriageCounseling Corpus
145
4 Approaches to Tagging
146
5 Evaluations
153
6 Discussion
154
7 CATS Tool
156
8 Related Work
157
Argumentative Zoning for Improved Citation Indexing
159
2 Argumentative Zoning and Author Affect
161
3 Metadiscourse
163
4 Human Annotation of Author Affect
165
5 Features for Author Affect
167
7 Conclusion
168
Politeness and Bias in Dialogue Summarization Two Exploratory Studies
171
6 Generation
191
7 Experiments
192
8 Evaluation
195
9 Conclusion
196
Identifying Interpersonal Distance using Systemic Features
199
1 Introduction
200
3 Representing System Networks
204
4 Identifying Registers
209
5 Conclusion
212
CorpusBased Study of Scientific Methodology Comparing the Historical and Experimental Sciences
215
1 Introduction
216
3 Systemic Indicators as Textual Features
219
4 Experimental Study
222
5 Example Texts
227
6 Conclusions
228
Argumentative Zoning Applied to Critiquing Novices Scientific Abstracts
233
1 Introduction
234
3 Argumentative Zoning for Portuguese Texts
237
4 Evaluation of SciPos Critiquing Tool
242
5 Conclusions
244
Using Hedges to Classify Citations in Scientific Articles
247
2 Hedging in Scientific Writing
248
3 Classifying Citations in Scientific Writing
250
4 Determining the Importance of Hedges in Citation Contexts
252
5 A Citation Indexing Tool for Biomedical Literature Analysis
256
6 Conclusions and Future Work
261
Towards a Robust Metric of Polarity
265
2 Related Work
266
3 Classes of Polar Expression
268
4 Recognizing Polar Language
269
5 Topic Detection in Online Messages
270
6 The Intersection of Topic and Polarity
272
7 Empirical Analysis
273
8 Metrics for Topic and Polarity
275
9 Conclusions and Future Work
277
Characterizing Buzz and Sentiment in Internet Sources Linguistic Summaries and Predictive Behaviors
281
2 Linguistic Summaries
282
3 Example Applications
289
4 TRENDS2 Infrastructure
292
5 Previous and Related Work
293
Good News or Bad News? Let the Market Decide
297
2 Experiments
298
3 Results
299
4 Conclusions
300
Opinion Polarity Identification of Movie Reviews
303
2 Related Research
304
3 Probabilistic Approaches to Polarity Identification
305
4 Features for Analysis
306
5 Part of Speech Feature Selection
307
6 Experiments
308
7 Synonymy and Hypernymy Feature Generalization
312
8 Selection by Ranking
314
10 Conclusion
315
MultiDocument Viewpoint Summarization Focused on Facts Opinion and Knowledge
317
1 Introduction
318
MultiDocument Viewpoint Summarization with Summary Types
319
3 Sentencetype Annotation
323
4 Genre Classification
325
5 Experiment Results
328
6 Conclusion
333
Index
337
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Page 316 - Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and Eighth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1 997. [52] Krebs B., "E-mail Scam Sought to defraud PayPal customers", Newshytes (19 December, 2001), http://www.newsbytes.com/news/01/l73120.html.