Computing with Words in Information/Intelligent Systems 1: Foundations

Front Cover
Lotfi A. Zadeh
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 16, 1999 - Computers - 518 pages
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These two volumes consIstmg of Foundations and Applications provide the current status of theoretical and empirical developments in "computing with words". In philosophy, the twentieth century is said to be the century of language. This is mainly due to Wittgenstein who said: "The meaning of a word is its use in the language game". "The concept game is a concept with blurred edges". In the first phrase, "the language game" implies the everyday human activity with language, and in the latter, "game" simply implies an ordinary word. Thus, Wittgenstein precisely stated that a word is fuzzy in real life. Unfortunately this idea about a word was not accepted in the conventional science. We had to wait for Zadeh's fuzzy sets theory. Remembering Wittgenstein's statement, we should consider, on the one hand, the concept of "computing with words" from a philosophical point of view. It deeply relates to the everyday use of a word in which the meaning of a word is fuzzy in its nature.
 

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Contents

Fuzzy Logic Computing with Words
3
PERFORMING APPROXIMATE REASONING WITH WORDS?
24
Approximate Reasoning as a Basis for Computing with Words
50
What is Intelligent Measurement?
78
Semiotics and Computational Linguistics On Semiotic Cognitive Information Processing
93
Analogies and Contexts
119
Problems of Interpretation in the Social Sciences
136
A TERMINOLOGICAL PRIMER
154
Fuzzy Negation
297
TRIANGULAR OPERATIONS NEGATIONS AND SCALAR CARDINALITY OF A FUZZY SET
326
FUZZY IMPLICATIONS IN APPROXIMATE REASONING
342
On the Semantics of Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifiers
358
Evaluating Linguistic Expressions and Functional Fuzzy Theories in Fuzzy Logic
383
Calculation over Verbal Quantities
409
Aggregation of Linguistic Information Based on a Symbolic Approach
428
A Computational Framework to Compute with Words
443

Fuzzy Logic and Rough Sets
183
Towards an Adaptive Calculus of Granules
201
Semantics and Modelling of Flexible Time Indications
229
Towards Fuzzy Logic
259
Study on a Framework for Solving Illdefined Problem Using Patterns and Symbols
479
GroupTheoretic Approach to Computing with Words in InformationIntelligent Systems
495
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