## Conceptual Statistics for BeginnersNow in its third edition, Conceptual Statistics for Beginners emphasizes and facilitates the conceptual understanding of statistics and statistical concepts for the purpose of reading and accurately interpreting research literature. The last two chapters of the book introduce two new concepts. The first concept is type VI error, which is the inconsistency between the statistical procedure and the research question. The final chapter introduces the importance of the concept of "Replicability" vs. statistical significance and effect size. |

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### Contents

Ordinal and Disordinal lnteraction | 76 |

K Example of an SAS Computer Setup for a 3 x 3 Factorial | 193 |

Proaram on Freguencies | 203 |

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achievement score alpha level analysis of variance Analyze ANOVA APPENDIX appropriate area of interest assigned assume average calculated causation central tendency Chapter Chi-Square concept concurrent validity control group correlation Crosstabs Define degrees of freedom determine disordinal ex post facto example F-test factor factorial design female Figure frequently gender grade equivalence independent variable infer internal validity interpret ln other words main effects male mean score measure of central median menu method models Newman normal distribution null hypothesis number of groups number of subjects occur ordinal percentile rank plotted population Posavac post facto research post-test pre-test predict quasi-experimental raw scores regression reliability research design research question scattergram simple effects skewed distribution SPSS Square standard deviation standard scores stanine statement statistically significant table value teacher technique tests of significance total number treatment true experimental design two-tailed test Type l error