Conditioned Reflexes

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Courier Corporation, 2003 - Psychology - 430 pages
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The Nobel Prize-winning scientist offers a precise, full, and accessible exposition of his landmark work in experimental psychology. Pavlov details the technical means by which he established experiments and controls, the experiments, observations on formation of conditioned reflexes, external and internal reflex inhibitions, the function of cerebral hemispheres and cortex, and more. 18 figures.


 

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Contents

The development of the objective method in investigating the physiological activities of the cerebral hemispheresConcept of ReflexVariety of Reflex...
1
Technical methods employed in the objective investigation of the functions of the cerebral hemispheresResponse to signals as reflex actionUnconditio...
16
The formation of conditioned reflexes by means of conditioned and direct stimuliAgencies which can be used as conditioned stimuliInhibition of con...
33
Internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes a Extinction
48
Internal inhibition continued b Conditioned inhibition
68
Internal inhibition continued c Delay
88
The analysing and synthesizing activity of the cerebral hemispheres a The initial generalization of conditioned stimuli b Diferential inhibition
110
The analysing and synthesizing activity of the cerebral hemispheres continued c Examples of the analysis of stimuli d Synthesis and analysis of comp...
131
The cortex as a mosaic of functione a Examples of the mosaic character of the cortex and the more obvious ways in which this character is acquired ...
219
The development of inhibition in the cortex under the influence of conditioned stimuli
234
Internal inhibition and sleep as one and the same process with regard to their intimate mechanism
250
Transition stages between the alert state and complete sleep hypnotic stages
265
The different types of nervous systemPathological disturbances of the cortex results of functional interference
284
Pathological disturbances of the cortex result of functional interference continued
301
Pathological disturbances of the cortex result of surgical interference a General disturbances of the cortical activity b Disturbances of the acoustic anal...
320
Pathological disturbances of the cortex result of surgical interference continued c in the visual analyser d in the tactile cutaneous analyser e occurring ...
341

The irradiation and concentration of nervous processes in the cerebral cortex a The irradiation and concentration of inhibition within a single analyser
152
Irradiation and concentration of nervous processes in the cerebral hemispheres continued b Irradiation and concentration of inhibition over the entire...
167
Mutual induction of excitation and inhibition a Positive induction b Negative induction
188
Interaction of irradiation and concentration with induction
204
Pathological disturbances of the cortex result of surgical interference continued attempt to correlate the general postoperative behaviour of the animal...
361
The general characteristics of the present investigation and its special difficultiesDiscovery of certain errors necessitating the modification of some ear...
377
The experimental results obtained with animals in their application to man
395
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About the author (2003)

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, a Russian physiologist and psychologist, demonstrated, by his 62 years of active research, one model of the research career: making a major discovery by studying more and more about less and less. He first studied the neural mechanisms of blood circulation and digestion; then the mechanisms of digestion; and finally salivation. His studies of salivation led to his discovery of the conditioned reflex: a dog trained to associate feeding with the sounding of a bell would salivate when the bell was sounded, even though no food was made available. He received the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on the processes of digestion, but it was his further experiments in the operation of the conditioned reflex that made him an important figure in psychology. His work has had its greatest impact on behavioral psychologists, who concern themselves primarily with observable relationships between measurable stimuli and behavioral responses in human beings as well as in animals. They quickly saw that Pavlov's objective techniques could be used to establish laws of behavior, especially in the area of learning. Thus, Pavlov's concept of the conditioned reflex has become an important feature of learning theory.

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