Conductivities and Viscosities in Pure and in Mixed Solvents: Radiometric Measurements of the Ionization Constants of Indicators, Etc

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Carnegie institution of Washington, 1915 - Electrolytes - 175 pages
 

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Page 47 - currents. Their initial direction is at right angles to the lines of force of the magnetic field, and also at right angles to the direction in which the mass moves ; therefore, in the shuttle armature, they travel lengthways along the iron core, completing their circuit in a more or less circular path in the iron (whence they gain the name of 'eddy...
Page 169 - the rate of adsorption of the chlorine ions from solution by soils is much less than of potassium ions. The selective adsorption of potassium from a potassium chloride solution by a soil increases in amount with the concentration up to a certain point and then remains practically constant. In general, the smaller the soil particles the greater the selective adsorption of the potassium from a potassium chloride solution by the soil.
Page 84 - The absorptions of aqueous solutions of salts were compared with the absorption of a layer of water equal in depth to the water in the solution.
Page 111 - ... (5) The curves for the saponification of methyl formate are very similar to those for methyl acetate. (6) The large effect of salts with water of crystallization is probably due, in part, to their being hydrated , combined water being more highly ionized than free water. (7) The amount of the saponification, and, therefore, the position of the curve seems to be due to the combined effect of both cation and anion. (8) It is probable that anions as well as cations are somewhat hydrated.
Page 83 - Received November 5, 1915. Jones and Anderson,2 in their work on the absorption spectra of solutions, studied the absorption spectra of neodymium chloride in water, in methyl alcohol and in mixtures of these two solvents. They found two sets of absorption spectra corresponding, the one to the aqueous solution and the other to the alcoholic. In the mixture of these solvents both of these spectra were obtained. Similar results were obtained with neodymium nitrate and praseodymium chloride. Jones and...
Page 108 - I and II the lithium salts do not seem to fit in with the sodium and potassium salts, but what has been said about calcium bromide and barium bromide applies also to these salts as is shown by Plates III, IV and V. How can we explain this increase in the velocity of the reaction caused by salts that have water of crystallization, and the decrease in their effect on dilution? Getman and Bassett1 showed that the salts having water of crystallization are in solution the most hydrated. Assuming that...
Page 109 - Pearce1 shows that the cations are the ones that are most strongly hydrated, the anions, if hydrated at all, being only slightly so. The curves we find for the halides of potassium show that in the saponification of esters the anions play an important part. This is in line with what Kellogg2 found. It therefore seems probable that the anions are also hydrated to a certain extent. But how can the larger temperature coefficient of reaction velocity of the hydrated salts be accounted for, since with...
Page 108 - ... (1913). ie, magnesium salts having the greatest effect, then calcium, strontium and barium. Let us see if the experimental data confirm these conclusions, based on the assumption that the difference in action between salts that have water of crystallization and salts that do not, is due primarily to the hydrates formed by the salts with water of crystallization. Taking into consideration the facts brought out earlier, that the dilution of maximum saponification for the apparent exceptions had...
Page 91 - ... magnesium nitrate into the pyrophosphate, strontium nitrate into the sulphate, and lithium nitrate into the sulphate by evaporating with sulphuric acid. Magnesium sulphate was standardized as barium sulphate, and the iodides of sodium and potassium were also determined gravimetrically. THE ESTERS. The ester first employed was ethyl acetate. After some preliminary work, this was discarded in favor of methyl acetate, since its solubility in some of the strong salt solutions was so slight as to...
Page 90 - ... rises the hydrates become less complex. From the results obtained with the ester and pure water, as compared with those from solutions of the salts, we could study the effect of rise in temperature on the hydrated salts. The hydrolysis bf the various salts used in this work has been taken into account. Statement of Problem. The plan was to investigate the difference in the velocities with which free water and combined water saponified an ester under the following conditions : (1) Time and concentration...

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