Congestion Pricing and Infrastructure Financing: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Water Resources, Transportation, and Infrastructure of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 21, 1991

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Page 58 - ... with economic conditions and fuel prices, and recent shortfalls in gas tax revenues have made it increasingly necessary to supplement the gas tax with state and local revenues.' These periodic shortfalls and continual uncertainty are one reason to move away from the fuel tax as a source of highway revenue. A more important reason is that the fuel tax does not reflect the pavement damage and congestion caused by vehicles. Pavement Wear Charges Pavements become worn as vehicles pass over them and...
Page 64 - ... spurred by deregulation, and the high cost and long lead times associated with new airports suggest that* society will be faced with a difficult and expensive catch-up task if it commits itself to reducing air congestion by building more airports. A less costly and more effective solution is to price and invest in existing airports more efficiently. Efficient Runway Pricing and Capacity The most common way of assessing landing fees at airports is by aircraft weight. Thus, a commercial jumbo jet...
Page 52 - REFERENCES American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ( 1977) A Manual on User Benefit Analysts of Highway and Bus Transit Improvements.
Page 104 - We need to maintain, expand, and make our transportation system more productive. We need a better application of management and technology.
Page 58 - The fuel tax provides truckers with the opposite incentive; the tax rises with a vehicle's axles, since trucks with more axles require larger engines and get lower fuel economy. Oregon has used a weight-distance tax for many years, and recently introduced on a partial basis a trucking tax based on axle weight. Oregon also reports that evasion of the tax is no more of a problem than for fuel taxes.
Page 61 - ... highways?" However, Small (1983) shows that objections by those who protest that lower income drivers would be unfairly penalized are unfounded. If toll revenues are used to lower property taxes, invest in public transit, or replace registration fees or fuel taxes, congestion pricing can benefit all income classes. Objections that tolls are impractical are also overstated. Congestion tolls varying by time of day, and imposed when congestion would otherwise persist, can be implemented without...
Page 56 - ... two lanes when it is repaved but vehicles are required to pay efficient tolls based on congestion and pavement wear, then the road's capacity is far less likely to be exceeded during peak periods and its pavement will remain in good condition. Making efficient use of current transportation capacity will reduce the need for massive public investment in airports and roads and will prevent the recurrence of infrastructure problems. Surprisingly, the belief of most economists that public infrastructure...
Page 56 - Downs's law: on urban commuter expressways, peak-hour traffic congestion increases to meet maximum capacity because commuters shift from less preferred modes and times of day. Anthony Downs, "The Law of Peak-Hour Expressway Congestion.
Page 60 - Table 1 Annual Economic Effects of Efficient Infrastructure Policy for Roads (change, relative to current practice, in billions of 1982 dollars except as noted, positive dollar values indicate improvement) Source: Small, Winston. Evans (1989). "These estimates do not include changes in user costs (vehicle damage and slower speeds due to damaged pavement). Small. Winston, and Evans (1989) point out there are difficulties in obtaining reliable estimates of this effect.
Page 65 - Airports' net revenues would fall slightly, but, as we argue below, they would become financially self-sufficient. The combination of efficient pricing and efficient investment policies is again economically and politically important. If airports adopted efficient congestion fees alone, there would be considerable redistribution from travelers — who would primarily absorb the higher takeoff and landing fees through higher fares — to airports. The losses to commercial travelers could be softened...

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