Conscious sedation in gastroenterology: a handbook for nurse practitioners
In retrospect, the dosage of IV sedatives used in the early days of endoscopy both in the USA and Great Britain was frequently too high. Today we are much more careful in the way we sedate patients being acutely aware of the fact that if the patient becomes unresponsive and verbal contact is lost then, by definition, a general anaesthetic has just been administered with all the clinical and legal implications that this holds. This expertly written book examines all aspects of conscious sedation and will be an essential reference for nurses and other health professionals involved in the clinical care of patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures that require conscious sedation. Each chapter covers a particular area of the practice of conscious sedation and the authors come from a wide spectrum of clinical specialities.
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administration agents airway amnesia anaesthesia anaesthetic anaesthetist analgesia anxiety appropriate arrhythmias arterial aspiration assessment Bell GD benzodiazepines blood pressure bowel breathing cannula cardiovascular cause chapter clinical clinician complications conscious sedation contraindications cuff diazepam dose effects endoscopic procedures endoscopist endoscopy team endoscopy unit ensure examination example fibrillation Figure flumazenil gastroscope guidelines heart rate hypertension hypotension hypoxaemia hypoxia important increase indicate inhalational sedation injection intravenous intravenous midazolam intravenous sedation life-threatening lignocaine McCloy measure midazolam monitoring myocardial infarction myocardial ischaemia nitrous oxide normal nurse opioid oversedation oxygen saturation pain patients undergoing practice practitioner probe problems professional propofol protocols pulmonary pulse oximetry pulse rate Quine reaction receptors recommended recovery reduce respiration respiratory depression response result Resuscitation Council Rhythm strip risk Royal College sedated patient sedationist sedative drugs sevoflurane ST segment supplemental oxygen surgical tachycardia techniques Temazepam titration treatment upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vasovagal venepuncture ventricular