Conservation and Seismic Strengthening of Byzantine Churches in Macedonia
Getty Conservation Institute, 2004 - Architecture - 172 pages
Between the ninth and fourteenth century, hundreds of architecturally exquisite Byzantine churches, many of them adorned with beautiful frescoes, were built in the area now known as the Republic of Macedonia. The condition of these buildings has been of ongoing concern because of deterioration and destruction from forces both human and natural, including devastating earthquakes.
This book summarizes the results of a four-year study to develop and test seismic retrofitting techniques for the repair and strengthening of those ancient Byzantine churches still in existence. The volume considers the conservation of historic buildings in seismic zones; surveys the condition of fifty existing Byzantine churches in Macedonia; and details the design, construction, and seismic testing of a half-scale model church. The volume also includes representative experimental and technical data.
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1 General Considerations Regarding the Conservation of Historic Buildings in Seismic Zones 1 Criteria and Objectives
5 Overview of Byzantine Churches 5 Architecture
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amax Ambient vibration analytical apse architectural Banjani base shear coefficient bearing capacity belt courses Bogorodica Zahumska Breginj brick building Byzantine churches Centro earthquake church of St church structure churches in Macedonia columns computed conservation construction cracks damage defined deformations displacement ductility dynamic analysis dynamic characteristics dynamic response East-west elastic existing experimental facade walls failure Frequency Hz fresco Gavrilovic grout historic incorporated initial stiffness Interstory drift IZIIS model kN/cm lime mortar loads masonry mass materials maximum methods mode shapes narthex natural frequencies Nikita church Nikola nondimensional nonlinear North-south obtained Ohrid original model parameters performed perimeter walls period of 1000 Petrovac prototype Q-D diagrams quincunx reinforcement repair and strengthening Republic of Macedonia retrofitting return period roof seismic retrofitting seismic strengthening shaking table shear force Skopje steel strengthened church model strengthened model stresses structural system Sumanov tambour tensile timber belts upper values vaults