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INTRODUCTION AND ORIENTATION l
A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO SYSTEMS
SCIENCE AND CONSTRUCTIVISM
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action research adapt analysis application appreciative system approaches argued artefacts aspects assumptions behaviour business processes chapter Checkland client communication component-systems components computer-based computing concerns considered constraints constructivism constructivist context culture data models decision definition described descriptions discussion domain dynamic emergent properties emphasize end-user entities environment epistemological example existing experience expert systems forms function Gammack groupware hard systems hermeneutics human activity systems ideas identified implementation implies individual information systems interpretation involved issues Kampis Klir knowledge knowledge engineering learning meaning meaningful mental models methodology nature notion objects ontological organizational activity organizational learning paradigm particular perceived perspective philosophy postmodern postmodernist potential problem purpose reality relation relevant requirements role scientific scientists shared concepts situation social soft systems soft systems methodology software engineering specific strategy structure systems development systems thinking techniques theory things tion traditional understanding