## Control Theory for Humans: Quantitative Approaches To Modeling PerformanceThis textbook provides a tutorial introduction to behavioral applications of control theory. Control theory describes the information one should be sensitive to and the pattern of influence that one should exert on a dynamic system in order to achieve a goal. As such, it is applicable to various forms of dynamic behavior. The book primarily deals with manual control (e.g., moving the cursor on a computer screen, lifting an object, hitting a ball, driving a car), both as a substantive area of study and as a useful perspective for approaching control theory. It is the experience of the authors that by imagining themselves as part of a manual control system, students are better able to learn numerous concepts in this field. Topics include varieties of control theory, such as classical, optimal, fuzzy, adaptive, and learning control, as well as perception and decision making in dynamic contexts. The authors also discuss implications of control theory for how experiments can be conducted in the behavioral sciences. In each of these areas they have provided brief essays intended to convey key concepts that enable the reader to more easily pursue additional readings. Behavioral scientists teaching control courses will be very interested in this book. |

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### Contents

A Systems Approach | 1 |

2 Closing the Loop | 8 |

3 Information Theory and Fitts Law | 17 |

FirstOrder Lag | 27 |

Block Diagrams and Laplace Transforms | 33 |

SecondOrder System | 46 |

7 Nonproportional Control | 58 |

8 Interactions Between Information and Dynamic Constraints | 74 |

Optimal Control | 195 |

18 Estimating and Predicting the State of a Dynamic System With LagLike Calculations | 212 |

19 Varieties of Variability | 222 |

20 Lifting a Glass of Juice | 239 |

21 Sine Wave Tracking Is Predictably Attractive | 252 |

An Optical Basis for the Control of Locomotion | 269 |

23 Fuzzy Approaches to Vehicular Control | 291 |

Neural Nets | 303 |

9 Order of Control | 87 |

10 Tracking | 104 |

11 There Must Be 50 Ways to See a Sine Wave | 112 |

12 A Qualitative Look at Fourier Analysis | 120 |

Bode Analysis | 137 |

Describing the Human Operator | 158 |

15 Additional Adaptive Aspects of the Crossover Model | 168 |

16 Driving Around in Circles | 184 |

25 Some Parallels Between Decision Making and Manual Control | 314 |

26 Designing Experiments with Control Theory in Mind | 331 |

27 Adaptation and Design | 342 |

Interactive Demonstrations | 360 |

367 | |

375 | |

### Other editions - View all

Control Theory for Humans: Quantitative Approaches To Modeling Performance Richard J. Jagacinski,John M. Flach No preview available - 2002 |

### Common terms and phrases

adaptive control adjustment aircraft altitude amplitude approximately attractor bandwidth behavior Bode plot chap chapter closed-loop cognitive components constant constraints control problem control strategy control system control theory crossover model cycle delay describing function discrete display dynamic system effective Equation error signal estimate example Experimental Psychology feedback loop first-order lag Fitts Fourier frequency response fuzzy control systems fuzzy set gain gradient descent heading angle Human Factors human operator human performance IEEE Transactions increase initial input signal integral Jagacinski Kalman filter linear Man-Machine Systems manual control mathematical matrix McRuer measure motion motor movement noise nonlinear observation open-loop optical flow optimal control optimal control model parameters pattern perception phase lag pilot position and velocity prediction proportional reflect relation relative represents result second-order system simulation sine wave sinusoidal spectrum speed splay step response submovements torque tracking task trajectory transfer function typically variability velocity control zero