Cooperative research in R & D-intensive industries
The author investigates the foundations of the increased attention to inter-firm collaboration in R&D in developed market economies. The analysis confirms the ability of multi-party cooperatives for generic research to promote competition in various market and technology settings akin to R&D-Intensive, but somewhat mature, industries. In numerous operating environments, cooperation can rectify insufficient incentives to invest in relatively inappropriate generic research. Moreover, joint ventures for precompetitive research frequently intensify incentives among their clientele to expand in-house development research and, thus, can be effective in inducing enhanced levels of production.
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Cooperative research as an institution
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adjustment cost Alvey Program antitrust appropriability basic research collaboration collective research competition competitors concerning consumer surplus Cooperation versus noncooperation cooperative industry cooperative research organizations development research economic efficient Engineering Research Associations European evolution example external firm R&D funding Haklisch in-house incentives increase industrial research industry's information technology integrated circuit investment Japan Japanese joint research large number larger levels linear model lithography manufacturing process mature member firms Mowery multi-firm multi-party Nash equilibrium NCRA noncooperative firms noncooperative industry operating entity Ordover Ouchi output production participants percent pre-competitive profits R&D and Output R&D effort R&D expenditures R&D intensity Rate of Spillovers research activities research and development research consortia research cooperation research effort research expenditures research joint ventures secretariat Sematech semiconductor industry semiconductor manufacturing spillover rates stage strategic structure technological evolution technological innovation technological knowledge technological opportunities theoretical tion U.S. Congress U.S. dollars United United Kingdom variables VLSI