Coping with crime: individual and neighborhood reactions
How is a social scientist to cope with the cornucopia of already existing studies in his or her area? How to draw useable conclusions from a body of work that might run to 5000 items? Traditional narrative integration fails to usefully portray such accumulated knowledge. Meta-analysis is an approach that systematically analyzes and synthesizes research. This book is its first full explanation. Meta-analysis treats a field of research as a complex set of data to be accumulated and integrated. As such it has much in common with survey research -- though, as causal relationships may have already been established by the studies being surveyed meta-analysis need not suffer from the limitations of survey research as a tool for establishing causes. Besides showing how to derive generalizations from very large and divergent bodies of research, the authors also provide ways for enhancing the findings of few or small research studies, and techniques for evaluating the findings of individual experiments by contrasting them with the combined weight of findings from other studies. Their approach does not enforce uniformity on different research. Instead, it is a way to enhance clarity, explicitness and openness in research reviews. Its use will speed the first step of most research projects -- to see what has been done before -- and will help researchers to avoid costly research duplication.
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The Problem and the Cities
Crimes and Victims
Fear of Crime
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analysis assessments average behavior big problem Blacks burglary Chapter Chicago Police Department combined citywide surveys Computed from combined concern about crime correlation coverage crime and disorder crime conditions crime problems crime rates crime stories crime victims differences effect elderly exposure to risk factors fear of crime Figure frequency groups household protection impact income indicated individuals involved levels of fear Lincoln Park live neighborhood conditions neighborhood crime neighborhood integration neighbors newspapers nonvictims participation personal crime personal theft places police population purse snatching rape rates of victimization reactions to crime regression analysis relationship relatively reported residential residents respondents robbery San Francisco scores significant social SOURCE South Philadelphia street crime substantial suburbs Table talk about crime three cities tion types of crime U.S. Department unsafe urban victimization and fear victimization rates victimization surveys violent crime Visitacion Valley West Philadelphia whites Wicker Park women Woodlawn