Copper and Bronze in Art: Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation
Pigments, corrosion products, and minerals are usually considered separately, either as painting materials or as the deterioration products of metals, even though they are often the same compounds. This 190-year review of the literature on copper and its alloys integrates that information across a broad spectrum of interests that are all too frequently compartmentalized. The author discusses the various environmental conditions to which copper alloy objects may be exposed-including burial, outdoor, and indoor museum environments-and the methods used to conserve them. The book also includes information on ancient and historical technologies, the nature of patina as it pertains to copper and bronze, and the use of copper corrosion materials as pigments.
Chapters are organized primarily by chemical corrosion products and include topics such as early technologies, copper chlorides and bronze disease, the chemistry and history of turquoise, Egyptian blue and other synthetic copper silicates, the organic salts of copper in bronze corrosion, and aspects of bronze patinas. A detailed survey of conservation treatments for bronze objects is also provided. Four appendixes cover copper and bronze chemistry, replication experiments for early pigment recipes, a list of copper minerals and corrosion products, and X-ray diffraction studies.
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Some Historical Aspects of Copper and Corrosion
Pourbaix Diagrams and Environmental Effects
Copper in Contact with Organic Materials
Corrosion Products and Pigments
Malachite 14 Historical References to Copper Sulfates
Azurite 159 Case Studies of Exposed Bronzes
Early Verdigris Recipes
The Copper Resinates
Early Coatings and Fabrication Methods 376 The Use of Corrosion Inhibitors
Changing Views of Bronze Patinas Ormocer and other polymer coatings
Patinas in the Renaissance Radiographic examination
Some Finishes and Preserved Structures of Copper and Bronze
Blue and Green Verditer 169 PLATES
The Copper Chlorides Niello recipes
The Basic Copper Chlorides as Pigments
Mechanical Cleaning 515 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Cleaning Marine Finds
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1cdd acid ancient antlerite append1x areas atacamite azurite basic copper BASIC COPPER CARBONATES botallackite brass brochantite bronze objects burial calcium century chalconatronite CHAPTER chemical chloride ions cleaning coating color complex compounds concentration connellite copper acetate copper alloys COPPER CARBONATES copper chlorides copper ions copper sulfate copper trihydroxychlorides CORROSION AND ENVIRONMENT corrosion crust corrosion of copper corrosion products corrosion rates crystals cuprite cuprite layer cuprous chloride d-spacing Intensity deposition dissolved dynasty Egyptian blue example exposure f1gure film formation glass glaze hydroxide ICDD identified Intensity d-spacing laboratory malachite material metal surface mineral mixture Mohs hardness nantokite niello occur outdoor bronzes oxide oxygen paratacamite particles patina Paul Getty Museum phase phosphate pigment posnjakite Pourbaix diagram precipitate reaction recipe resin result salts sampleite samples sculpture seawater showed shown in plate sodium soil solution sulfide synthetic tenorite tion turquoise verdigris vinegar X-ray diffraction X-ray diffraction data zinc