Copper and Bronze in Art: Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation

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Getty Publications, 2002 - Antiques & Collectibles - 515 pages
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Pigments, corrosion products, and minerals are usually considered separately, either as painting materials or as the deterioration products of metals, even though they are often the same compounds. This 190-year review of the literature on copper and its alloys integrates that information across a broad spectrum of interests that are all too frequently compartmentalized. The author discusses the various environmental conditions to which copper alloy objects may be exposed-including burial, outdoor, and indoor museum environments-and the methods used to conserve them. The book also includes information on ancient and historical technologies, the nature of patina as it pertains to copper and bronze, and the use of copper corrosion materials as pigments.
Chapters are organized primarily by chemical corrosion products and include topics such as early technologies, copper chlorides and bronze disease, the chemistry and history of turquoise, Egyptian blue and other synthetic copper silicates, the organic salts of copper in bronze corrosion, and aspects of bronze patinas. A detailed survey of conservation treatments for bronze objects is also provided. Four appendixes cover copper and bronze chemistry, replication experiments for early pigment recipes, a list of copper minerals and corrosion products, and X-ray diffraction studies.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Some Historical Aspects of Copper and Corrosion
16
Pourbaix Diagrams and Environmental Effects
32
Copper in Contact with Organic Materials
72
Corrosion Products and Pigments
79
Tenorite formation
95
Malachite 14 Historical References to Copper Sulfates
102
Azurite 159 Case Studies of Exposed Bronzes
108
Synthetic Pigments
266
Early Verdigris Recipes
279
The Copper Resinates
294
Conservation Treatments
303
Early Coatings and Fabrication Methods 376 The Use of Corrosion Inhibitors
317
Changing Views of Bronze Patinas Ormocer and other polymer coatings
323
Patinas in the Renaissance Radiographic examination
329
Some Finishes and Preserved Structures of Copper and Bronze
349

Blue and Green Verditer 169 PLATES
114
The Copper Chlorides Niello recipes
122
The Basic Copper Chlorides as Pigments
134
Chrysocolla
253
Mechanical Cleaning 515 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
357
Cleaning Marine Finds
369
CONTENTS
401
Copyright

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About the author (2002)


David A. Scott is senior scientist at the Getty Conservation Institute and head of the GCI Museum Research Laboratory. His publications include Ancient and Historic Metals, Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals, and more than sixty published papers in conservation and scientific journals.

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