Cosmos: An Illustrated History of Astronomy and Cosmology

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University of Chicago Press, 15. júl. 2008 - 876 síđur
3 Gagnrýni
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For millennia humans have studied the skies to help them grow crops, navigate the seas, and earn favor from their gods. We still look to the stars today for answers to fundamental questions: How did the universe begin? Will it end, and if so, how? What is our place within it? John North has been examining such questions for decades. In Cosmos, he offers a sweeping historical survey of the two sciences that help define our place in the universe: astronomy and cosmology.
Organizing his history chronologically, North begins by examining Paleolithic cave drawings that clearly chart the phases of the moon. He then investigates scientific practices in the early civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, and the Americas (among others), whose inhabitants developed sophisticated methods to record the movements of the planets and stars. Trade routes and religious movements, North notes, brought these ancient styles of scientific thinking to the attention of later astronomers, whose own theories—such as Copernicus’ planetary theory—led to the Scientific Revolution.
The work of master astronomers, including Ptolemy, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, is described in detail, as are modern-day developments in astrophysics, such as the advent of radio astronomy, the brilliant innovations of Einstein, and the many recent discoveries brought about with the help of the Hubble telescope. This new edition brings North’s seminal book right up to the present day, as North takes a closer look at last year’s reclassification of Pluto as a “dwarf” planet and gives a thorough overview of current research.
With more than two hundred illustrations and a comprehensive bibliography, Cosmos is the definitive history of astronomy and cosmology. It is sure to find an eager audience among historians of science and astronomers alike.
 

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LibraryThing Review

Umsögn notanda  - Steve_Walker - LibraryThing

Excellent 2nd edition of a very detailed history of astronomy. The late Professor North did an excellent job of not only outlining the western history of astronomy, but also describing the rise of the ... Read full review

LibraryThing Review

Umsögn notanda  - tungsten_peerts - LibraryThing

Although I think I may have been the only person in my History of Astronomy class who felt this way, I thought this was an outstanding text. North is opinionated, but this is a massive and ... Read full review

Efni

Early Astronomical Alignments in the Mediterranean
16
Egypt Greece and Rome
31
Babylonian Astronomy in the Assyrian Period
44
A Nonhistorical Digression
58
Babylonian Planetary Theory
64
Greek Calendar Cycles
70
Aristotelian Cosmology
80
The Interplay of Greek Geometry and Astronomy
86
The Nature of Comets
406
NEW ASTRONOMICAL PROBLEMS
418
The Eighteenth Century
424
Zenith Sectors and the London Trade in Instruments
433
Nebulae and Star Clusters before Herschel
442
John Michell William Herschel and Stellar Distance
449
Mathematics and the Solar System
452
Bessel and Stellar Parallax
469

Apollonius and the Shift to Epicyclic Astronomy
92
Hipparchus and the Sun Moon and Planets
101
Ptolemy and the Suns Motion
110
Astrology
118
The Astrolabe
124
CHINA AND JAPAN
134
Eclipse Observation and Prediction
141
Korea and Japan
149
Tibetan Astronomy
158
Mayan and Aztecan Worship of Venus
164
INDIAN AND PERSIAN ASTRONOMY
171
The Double Epicycle Model
175
EASTERN ISLAM
189
Nas1r alDm alTusi and His Followers
204
Ibn alZarqellu Access and Recess and the Toledan Tables
218
Byzantine Renewal
231
Dante and Chaucer
246
The Clock and the Universe
262
Astronomy and Navigation
277
Almanacs
292
A Return to the Greeks?
294
COPERNICUS PLANETARY THEORY
302
The Evolution of the Copernican System
310
A Period of Transformation
318
Celestial Spheres and Planetary Systems
329
Hypothesis or Truth Astronomy or Physics?
335
Opening Shots in the Battle with Mars
345
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
355
Galileo and the Cosmological Implications of the Telescope
368
The First Telescopic Age
377
Telescopes and Dreams
383
The Telescope with Micrometer
390
THE RISE OF PHYSICAL ASTRONOMY
399
Professional Refractors Amateur Reflectors
486
Photography and the Sun
500
The Solar Wind
513
On the Nature of Comets
526
GALAXIES STARS AND ATOMS
539
Stellar Distances Without Spectroscopy
555
Cepheid Variable Stars and Models of the Milky Way
570
Theories of Galactic Evolution
586
The Relative Abundances of the Chemical Elements
599
Evolving Stars and the HR Diagram
613
l7 THE RENEWAL OF COSMOLOGY
625
Models of the Universe
631
The Physics of the Universe
640
The Creation of Matter
646
The Battle of the Abundances
652
RADIO ASTRONOMY
659
The Search for High Angular Resolution
666
The Cosmic Microwave Background
675
Advances in Optical Astronomy
681
Rocketborne Observatories and the Solar System
689
Planet Shall Speak Peace Unto Planet
698
The Lagrange Points
706
Satellites and XRay and GammaRay Astronomy
712
Comets and Space Probes
722
Tilting at Windmills in Space
730
Propulsion Methods and Human Exploration
736
Galactic Black Holes
744
Dark Matter MACHOs and WIMPs
746
Q n and A
763
Mankind and the Universe
778
Index
815
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Um höfundinn (2008)

John North (1934-2008) was professor emeritus at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He was the author of many books, including The Measure of the Universe: A History of Modern Cosmology, The Ambassadors' Secret: Holbein and the World of the Renaissance, and, most recently, God's Clockmaker: Richard Wallingford and the Invention of Time.

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