Creating Defensible Space
The appearance of Oscar Newman's Defensible SpaceÓ in 1972 signaled the establishment of a new criminological subdiscipline that has come to be called by many Crime Prevention Through Environmental DesignÓ or CPTED. Over the years, Mr. Newman's ideas have proven to have significant merit in helping the Nation's citizens reclaim their urban neighborhoods. This casebook will assist public & private organizations with the implementation of Defensible Space theory. This monograph draws directly from Mr. Newman's experience as consulting architect. Illustrations.
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6-foot fencing African American alleys building types Carr Square city staff city's Clason Point collective rear yard Community Design Analysis corridors cost CPTED creating mini-neighborhoods crime rate criminals cul-de-sac Dayton Defensible Space defined downtown drug dealers dwelling unit elderly existing public housing factors families sharing Figure Five Oaks community Five Oaks showing floor front yards garbage gates groups highrise homeowners housing authority housing in Yonkers HUD's improvements individual families Institute for Community located low-income Map of Five ment middle-class middle-income modifications neighborhood neighbors Newman number of families number of units parking pedestrian Pete Smith physical police problems proposals Pruitt-Igoe public areas public housing projects public housing residents public street renters resi residential row houses scattered-site semiprivate serve sidewalk single-family houses slumlord social Space principles surrounding teenagers tenants townhouse traffic U.S. Department University of Dayton vandalism walk walkups Wayno white flight York City
Page 2 - Defensible Space' also does is give low-income families a self-respect they never had before; and an opportunity, in the case of our housing integration programs, to become part of the social mainstream. It gives people a new respect for the work and territory of others by giving them territory of their own to prize and to wish to see respected....
Page 100 - ... transferred to the new. In an evaluation of adjacent housing, the local newspaper found that 'there was no decline in property values and no white flight. The Yonkers school board says there is no decline in the quality and performance of children in the schools.
Page 33 - The result of these inexpensive and inadequate conversions was the rapid, and visually evident, deterioration of the housing stock. This led to a reluctance on, the part of neighboring homeowners to keep up their own properties. The community had entered a spiral of decline that appeared irreversible.
Page 13 - Louis in the mid-1960s wai coming apart. The influx of people from the rural areas of the South had overwhelmed the city. It had one of the Nation's highest crime rates, but the private streets appeared to be oblivious to the chaos and abandonment taking place around them.
Page 115 - ... research, and planning for the State management of resources and stabilization of the economy during the interim period following a nuclear attack. This agreement shall also contain the maximum cost under the agreement, specify the schedule of performance, and require that performance thereunder be conducted in accordance with the procedures and criteria set forth in the Administrative Manual for the Development of State Emergency Resources Management Plans. § 1714.4 Supervision of the studies,...
Page 13 - The residents owned and controlled their own streets, and although anyone was free to drive or walk them (they had no guard booths), one knew that one was intruding into a private world and that one's actions were under constant observation. Why, I asked, could not this model be used to stabilize the adjacent working and middle-class neighborhoods that were undergoing massive decline and abandonment?
Page 6 - This removed gang turf and gave the drug dealers nowhere to operate. The resurfacing of buildings and the provision of new paths, lighting and play equipment improved the look of the project and encouraged residents to assume new responsibilities. This reduced maintenance costs and increased occupancy levels.
Page 106 - You know, for me the best test of the Defensible Space theory was not the way the residents took over their own grounds and then began to defend the entire project, I kind of expected that, but it is the way they take care of their garbage cans next to their front walks. I, frankly, didn't think that would work.
Page 5 - This phenomenon flows from, our well publicized study of the private streets of St. Louis about 20 years ago. The creation of cul-de-sacs at the end of streets is a useful mechanism not only for reducing crime and traffic, but for stimulating reinvestment and the occupancy of previously vacant units.