Creating the Productive Workplace

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CRC Press, Nov 12, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 384 pages
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In an increasingly competitive environment, companies are being forced to think harder than ever about the way they work and how they can improve profitability. Creating the Productive Workplace provides a critical, multidisciplinary review of the factors affecting workplace productivity. Productivity is a key issue for individual companies as well as the national economy as a whole. With 70-90 per cent of the costs of running an organisation consisting of the salaries of the workforce, small increases in worker productivity can reap high financial returns. Many studies have shown that productivity at work bears a close relationship to the work environment. This book sets out the most important factors and evidence behind this phenomenon, and offers solutions to providing a work environment inducive to productivity. This book is essential reading for facilities and estates office managers, interior designers, architects and building environmental engineers. It is also a text for undergraduates and postgraduates studying these disciplines and related subjects.
 

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Contents

Indoor environment and productivity
3
Creativity in the workplace
18
Consciousness wellbeing and the senses
29
The nature of consciousness
30
Architecture and the senses
33
Multisensory experience
34
Wellbeing and productivity
36
Pleasure and joy and their role in human life
40
Activation arousal and stress
211
Beliefs expectations and emotions
213
Conclusions
216
Concentration and thinking
225
Attention and performance in the workplace
227
The nature of skills
228
The use of information in training
230
Using visual symbolsicons to convey information or instructions
231

Sensory pleasure
41
Pleasure and comfort
44
Conflicts of motivations
45
Optimisation of behaviour
47
Conclusions
48
Emotion and the environment the forgotten dimension
51
Purpose intention and goaldirected behaviour
52
The social aspect of attitude
53
Imperceptibility
54
Perception
55
Types of emotion
57
Environment and behaviour
60
Emotions as a crucial component of environmental meaning
62
Can we assign affective appraisals for places?
63
Development of a conceptual model for affective appraisal of spaces
64
Conclusions
66
A broad definition of comfort as an aid to meeting commitments on carbon dioxide reduction
71
Stress and the changing nature of work
77
Change as a source of stress
78
Counting the cost of mismanaged stress
79
The workplace change and more change
80
Diagnosing occupational stress
85
Options for the management of stress in the workplace
86
Secondary level interventions preventive stress management strategies
87
Tertiary level interventions curative stress management strategies
88
The economic case for productivity
91
The economics of enhanced environmental services in buildings
93
Problems with the market for indoor environmental quality
94
Public policy remedies
97
Assessment of link between productivity and indoor air quality
107
Objectives
108
Results
109
Definitions
110
Research methodology
112
Results of research
115
Conclusions and future research requirements
124
The nature of productivity
127
Assessment and measurement of productivity
129
The analytic hierarchy process
132
Subjective measurements and design of questionnaire
134
Occupant and environmental survey of buildings
137
office building in London
138
office building in Maidenhead
151
Conclusions
162
Productivity in buildings the killer9 variables
167
Terminology
170
Objectives
171
Conclusions
186
Individual control at each workplace the means and the potential benefits
192
The need for individual control
193
Delegation of control
194
The expected benefits of delegating control
196
Estimating how much thermal microclimate control is required
197
Acceptable levels of fan noise for individual thermal control
200
Estimating the productivity impact of providing individual control
202
the West Bend Mutual study
204
Creating highquality workplaces using lighting
207
From light to vision
209
Stimulusresponse compatibility
234
Relating psychological variables to physical variables
239
How to take account of the user?
240
Concentration and attention new directions in theory and assessment
242
Goals and obstacles
243
Mental fatigue
244
Mental effort and mental fatigue in the workplace
245
Sources of job interference
246
Strategies of intervention
247
Assessing the effect of an intervention
248
The importance of multiple measures
254
Case studies
257
Managerial and employee involvement in design processes
259
The case of no windows
260
The case of the colourcoordinated floors
261
The case of a great building that does not work
262
Attending to social and organisational perceptions
263
Managerial and employee involvement in decision making
266
Points of involvement in design and construction processes
269
Summary
271
The Intelligent Workplace a research laboratory
272
ABSIC
274
Exogenous developments
275
Major innovations
276
Significance of the IW
279
Airconditioning systems of the Kl Building Tokyo
281
Fragrance environment
285
Airflow fluctuation control
288
Biomusic
291
Diversifying workspaces
292
Sound masking
293
Employee productivity and the intelligent workplace
295
an insurance companys office environment
296
Conclusions
301
Future design guidelines and tools
304
Comfort temperatures
305
Comfort cooling
306
Nightlight
307
Finishes
308
Building form
309
The benefits of good design
310
Conclusions
311
Optimising the working environment
313
The future
321
New ways of working a vision of the future
323
The catalytic function of design in a time of change
324
A supplyside innovator
325
Two demandside innovators
326
New ways of working the price of relevance
328
The equation linking supply and demand
329
Measuring efficiency and effectiveness
331
A vision of the future
332
Creating the Productive Workplace Summary of Conference held at Westminster Central Hall London 2930 October 1997
334
People concentration and work
338
Best practice in gaining a competitive edge
340
The future for workplace and environmental design
342
Conclusions
345
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