Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts

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Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000 - Social Science - 333 pages
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Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, Second Edition is a vital book for anyone involved in architectural design, space management, and urban planning. The concepts presented in this book explain the link between design and human behavior. Understanding this link can enable a planner to use natural environmental factors to minimize loss and crime and to maximize productivity.

This practical guide addresses several environmental settings, including major event facilities, small retail establishments, downtown streets, residential areas, and playgrounds. A one-stop resource with explanations of criminal behavior and the historical aspects of design, it teaches both the novice and the expert in crime prevention how to use the environment to affect human behavior in a positive manner.


Fully updated with substantial new material in each chapter
Useful illustrations describe the design and layout concepts in an easy to understand manner
Written by a well-qualified author in the field of crime prevention
 

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I must admit that the author here has taken on a daunting task. Trying to bring together the concept of crime prevention from the public sector and security and risk management from the private sector. Although some may not see it as useful I would have preferred a more thorough review of the CPTED history as there are elements that were introduced by Oscar Newman (an architect) that I feel were valuable to the overall concept. "Architecture can create human encounters and can create the avoidance of human encounters." When reviewing the design of many multi residential buildings today builders still opt for the more money approach as opposed to the safer approach of clusters of apartments.
The other issue is Dr. Jeffery's simple but true concept of the things that we can control regarding criminal conduct. Motive, opportunity, and risk to the offender. We, of course cannot control the history of the offender nor, as we have learned the mental state of the offender. Mr. Crowe does address these issues but in an indirect. To his credit he does take on the lack of interest of the government of putting resources into these efforts where they would do the most good.
Overall I think this is a really good update on the the CPTED and its policy implications. His ideas on the fallacies of our current efforts of preventing and suppressing crime being totally ineffective are right on point. I would recommend this book highly to anyone interested in learning the basics of how some crime can actually be prevented.
William A. Formby, PhD
Associate Professor Of Criminal Justice
Concordia College Alabama
Associate Professor of Criminal Justice (emeritus)
The University of Alabama
 

Contents

Introduction to CPTED
1
ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS
2
THE NEED FOR CPTED
3
COMPETING CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES
4
CPTED AND CONTEMPORARY PLANNING MODELS
6
CPTED WORLDWIDE
7
RESULTS OF CPTED
9
SCOPE AND CONTENT
10
Barriers to Conflict
131
Outdoor Sitting Areas
133
Plazas
134
Pedestrian Mall
135
PARKING LOTS AND STRUCTURES
138
Parking Lot Access
140
Parking Structures
141
OFFICE AND INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS
143

Crime and Loss Prevention
13
CRIME
14
LEVELS OF CRIME
16
EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME
18
IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC ACTION
20
CONTEMPORARY CRIME PREVENTION AND INTERAGENCY CONCEPTS
21
CRIMINAL JUSTICE A MISPERCEIVED CONCEPT
22
PRODUCTIVITY FOR THE CRIME AND LOSS PREVENTION SPECIALIST
24
CRIME VERSUS LOSS PREVENTION
27
RISK MANAGEMENT
31
CPTED Concepts and Strategies
33
CPTED CONCEPTS
34
CPTED STRATEGIES
36
THE THREED APPROACH
39
Design
40
USE OF INFORMATION
41
SOME BENEFITS OF CPTED PLANNING ACTIVITIES
43
A NEW ROLE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
45
CPTED Definitions
46
CPTED Problems
47
A NATURAL APPROACH TO RETAIL SECURITY
49
CPTED IN LOWINCOME PUBLIC AND THREEGENERATION HOUSING
53
Natural Surveillance
54
Territorial Reinforcement
55
Neighborhood Planning
56
ThreeGeneration Housing
57
CPTED PLANNING AND DESIGN REVIEW
58
Review Process
59
Liability
60
ACHIEVING THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE
62
Historical Precedents of CPTED Early Settlement and Growth of Communities
65
THE GROWTH OF TRAFFIC PROBLEMS
67
THE GROWTH OF PLANNING PROBLEMS
69
THE GROWTH OF HOUSING PROBLEMS
73
THE GROWTH OF COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL PROBLEMS
77
Behavioral Precedents of CPTED From Caves to Fast Food
81
GREEK TEMPLES
82
MEDIEVAL CITIES
83
BAROQUE MANNERISM
84
LOUIS XIV
86
NAPOLEON III
87
CONTEMPORARY
88
Using the Environment to Affect Behavior
93
USE OF LIGHT AND COLOR
100
FENG SHUI
107
Aesthetics Environmental Cues and Territorial Behavior Implications for CPTED PlanningFUNCTION THE BATTLE WITH AESTHETICS
111
ENVIRONMENTAL CUES
114
TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR
116
VISUAL BUBBLES LANDSCAPE AND ART
122
Examples of OPTED Strategies and Applications
125
CPTED APPLICATIONS
127
DOWNTOWN STREETS AND PEDESTRIAN AREAS
128
Office Building Site Plan and Parking
144
Shipping and Receiving and Vehicle Access
146
Plant Design
147
HALLWAYS AND RESTROOMS
149
Restroom Location and Entrance Design
151
Informal Gathering Areas
153
MALLS AND SHOPPING CENTERS
155
Mall Design
156
Barriers to Conflict
158
CONVENIENCE STORES AND BRANCH BANKS
159
Locations Near Dense Commercial or Housing Sites
161
Hexagon Shaped
162
Kiosk Shaped
164
Branch Banks
165
OBJECTIVES FOR RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT
167
Residential Streets
168
Curvilinear Streets
174
Options for Private Use
178
Recovery of Grid Systems
182
OBJECTIVES FOR SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
185
School Campus Control
186
High School Parking Lots
187
Student Parking and Driver Education Relationships
188
Courtyards and Corridors
190
School Lunchtime Hallway Use
193
Safe Activities in Unsafe Locations
195
CONVENTION CENTER AND STADIUM
196
Stadium Entrance and Ticket Control
198
CPTED Implementation
201
IMPLEMENTATION
204
Program Management
205
Mission Statements Goals and Objectives
206
Time and Task Planning
207
EVALUATION AND MONITORING
208
Evaluation Design
209
Evaluation Objectives
210
Twenty Questions Often Asked About CPTED
211
OPTED in the 21st Century The Past Is Prologue
219
THE TRANSITION TO THE FUTURE OF CPTED
220
OPTED IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM
221
Institutional
222
Broward County School OPTED Matrix
225
CPTED Training Outline
239
School CPTED Survey
243
OPTED Design Directives for Dormitory and Student Lounges
251
Convenience Stores and Gas Stops CPTED Assessment Form
265
Rail Transit and Terminal CPTED Assessment Form
277
Apartments and Public Housing CPTED Assessment Form
299
Glossary
309
Bibliography
315
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