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Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq
No preview available - 2017
abduction al-Qaeda in Iraq Anbar anomie available Ba’athist Baghdad Baiji Basra became black market border business car theft collapse combat organized crime conflict control Corruption in Iraq crime in Iraq criminal activities criminal enterprises criminal organizations drug trafficking economy effect efforts exploitation extortion factions finance fuel funding Ghaith Abdul-Ahad groups hostages Ibid illicit important insurgents International involved Iraq’s Iraq’s oil Iraqi government Iraqi Insurgency Jill Carroll kidnapping kidnapping gangs kidnapping in Iraq kidnapping of foreigners killed law enforcement levels looting lucrative Mahdi army major members million money Mosul Muqtada al-Sadr networks number officials oil industry oil smuggling operations opportunities organized crime Patrick Cockburn pipeline police political problem profits protection provided ransom payments reconstruction refinery release report resources revenue Saddam Hussein Sadrists sanctions security Shiite militias smugglers smuggling of oil stolen Sunni Syria tanker targets terrorists theft and smuggling tribal tribes trucks U.S. forces U.S. military United victims violence