# Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature

Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 2000 - Mathematics - 288 pages
Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature provides a step-by-step approach to help the reader reach a good level of proficiency in systematic critical appraisal of medical information. To this end, the book covers all the elements that are necessary to develop these skills and is a comprehensive guide to the subject.
The book is written in three parts. The first part focuses on the logical justification and the validity of medical information. Its chapters present basic working definitions and discussions on relevant basic topics of statistics and epidemiology. The second part focuses on the complementary aspects of critique, common study designs and articles whose main topics are treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, aetiology, reviews, medical guidelines, audit, and qualitative research. The third part presents some statistical techniques that are commonly used in published articles.
Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature is intended for those interested in developing critical appraisal skills such as psychiatric trainees preparing for the Critical Review Paper of the MRCPsych Examination in the UK, other practitioners as part of their preparation for examinations, and medical professionals and students as part of their introduction to aspects of systematic critical appraisal of medical information.

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### Contents

 BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 APPRAISING MEDICAL EVIDENCE 7 PROBABILITY 9 2 RANDOM EXPERIMENT 10 4 EVENT AND PROBABILITY 11 5 CLASSICAL APPROACH TO PROBABILITY 14 7 CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY 15 8 BAYES THEOREM 17
 CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF DIFFERENT STUDY DESIGNS 137 2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 139 PAPERS ON TREATMENT 141 2 IMPORTANCE 142 3 USEFULNESS 145 PAPERS ON DIAGNOSIS 147 3 USEFULNESS 151 PAPERS ON PROGNOSIS 153

 10 PROPORTIONS AND PERCENTAGES 19 12 SUMMARY 21 VARIABLES AND MEASUREMENT 23 2 MEASUREMENT 26 3 SUMMARY 28 MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS 29 2 QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF MEASUREMENT 30 3 QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF MEASUREMENT 32 4 RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC ROC ANALYSIS 38 5 SUMMARY 39 SAMPLING AND DESIGN 41 2 SAMPLING 42 3 STUDY DESIGN 48 4 OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES 49 5 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 50 6 SUMMARY 52 BIAS 55 3 CONFOUNDING 58 DISTRIBUTIONS 61 3 CENTRAL TENDENCY 64 4 SHAPE 65 5 PARTITION 68 6 SPREAD VARIABILITY OR VARIATION 69 7 SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION 71 8 SUMMARY 72 BINOMIAL AND NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS 73 2 NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS 75 3 SUMMARY 79 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 81 2 STEPS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING 83 3 FINAL COMMENTS 89 4 SUMMARY 90 ERRORS AND SAMPLE SIZE 91 2 SAMPLE S1ZE 99 3 SUMMARY 101 ESTIMATION 103 3 ESTIMATORS 106 4 BIAS 107 6 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS 108 7 SUMMARY 110 EPIDEMIOLOGY 113 3 MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION 116 4 STANDARDISATION 118 5 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES 122 6 SUMMARY 126 PART II 129 INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF MEDICAL LITERATURE 131 2 HOW TO PRACTICE CRITICAL APPRAISAL 133 3 SPECIFIC POINTS 134 4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 136
 2 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 156 3 MORE ISSUES ON VALIDITY 157 4 IMPORTANCE 158 5 USEFULNESS 159 PAPERS ON AETIOLOGY 161 3 USEFULNESS 164 REVIEW PAPERS 167 2 METAANALYSIS 169 3 APPRAISAL 174 6 USEFULNESS 175 PAPERS ON GUIDELINES 177 PAPERS ON AUDIT 181 3 IMPORTANCE 183 PAPERS ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 185 2 APPRAISAL 187 SUMMARY 189 2 SPECIFIC POINTS 190 PART III 195 THE zTEST AND THE tTEST 197 2 THE tTEST 200 3 EXAMPLES 206 4 SUMMARY 208 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 209 3 TWOWAY ANOVA 214 4 THREEWAY ANOVA 218 7 EXAMPLE 219 8 SUMMARY 220 NONPARAMETRIC TESTS 221 2 FISHERS EXACT PROBABILITY TEST 225 3 THE MANNWHITNEY TEST FOR TWO INDEPENDENT SAMPLES 226 4 THE WILCOXON TEST 228 5 KRUSKALWALLIS H TEST FOR MORE THAN TWO SAMPLES 229 6 EXAMPLES 230 7 SUMMARY 231 CORRELATION REGRESSION AND PREDICTION 233 2 REGRESSION AND PREDICTION 238 3 MULTIPLE PREDICTION 241 4 EXAMPLE 245 5 SUMMARY 246 MULTIVARIABLE ANALYSIS 247 2 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS 254 3 EXAMPLES 259 4 SUMMARY 260 OTHER STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES 263 2 LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS 269 3 EXAMPLES 274 4 SUMMARY 276 REFERENCES 279 INDEX 283 Copyright

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