Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 2000 - Mathematics - 288 pages
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Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature provides a step-by-step approach to help the reader reach a good level of proficiency in systematic critical appraisal of medical information. To this end, the book covers all the elements that are necessary to develop these skills and is a comprehensive guide to the subject.
The book is written in three parts. The first part focuses on the logical justification and the validity of medical information. Its chapters present basic working definitions and discussions on relevant basic topics of statistics and epidemiology. The second part focuses on the complementary aspects of critique, common study designs and articles whose main topics are treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, aetiology, reviews, medical guidelines, audit, and qualitative research. The third part presents some statistical techniques that are commonly used in published articles.
Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature is intended for those interested in developing critical appraisal skills such as psychiatric trainees preparing for the Critical Review Paper of the MRCPsych Examination in the UK, other practitioners as part of their preparation for examinations, and medical professionals and students as part of their introduction to aspects of systematic critical appraisal of medical information.
 

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Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS
5
2 APPRAISING MEDICAL EVIDENCE
7
PROBABILITY
9
2 RANDOM EXPERIMENT
10
4 EVENT AND PROBABILITY
11
5 CLASSICAL APPROACH TO PROBABILITY
14
7 CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
15
8 BAYES THEOREM
17
CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF DIFFERENT STUDY DESIGNS
137
2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
139
PAPERS ON TREATMENT
141
2 IMPORTANCE
142
3 USEFULNESS
145
PAPERS ON DIAGNOSIS
147
3 USEFULNESS
151
PAPERS ON PROGNOSIS
153

10 PROPORTIONS AND PERCENTAGES
19
12 SUMMARY
21
VARIABLES AND MEASUREMENT
23
2 MEASUREMENT
26
3 SUMMARY
28
MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
29
2 QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF MEASUREMENT
30
3 QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF MEASUREMENT
32
4 RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC ROC ANALYSIS
38
5 SUMMARY
39
SAMPLING AND DESIGN
41
2 SAMPLING
42
3 STUDY DESIGN
48
4 OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
49
5 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
50
6 SUMMARY
52
BIAS
55
3 CONFOUNDING
58
DISTRIBUTIONS
61
3 CENTRAL TENDENCY
64
4 SHAPE
65
5 PARTITION
68
6 SPREAD VARIABILITY OR VARIATION
69
7 SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION
71
8 SUMMARY
72
BINOMIAL AND NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS
73
2 NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS
75
3 SUMMARY
79
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
81
2 STEPS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING
83
3 FINAL COMMENTS
89
4 SUMMARY
90
ERRORS AND SAMPLE SIZE
91
2 SAMPLE S1ZE
99
3 SUMMARY
101
ESTIMATION
103
3 ESTIMATORS
106
4 BIAS
107
6 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
108
7 SUMMARY
110
EPIDEMIOLOGY
113
3 MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION
116
4 STANDARDISATION
118
5 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES
122
6 SUMMARY
126
PART II
129
INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF MEDICAL LITERATURE
131
2 HOW TO PRACTICE CRITICAL APPRAISAL
133
3 SPECIFIC POINTS
134
4 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
136
2 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
156
3 MORE ISSUES ON VALIDITY
157
4 IMPORTANCE
158
5 USEFULNESS
159
PAPERS ON AETIOLOGY
161
3 USEFULNESS
164
REVIEW PAPERS
167
2 METAANALYSIS
169
3 APPRAISAL
174
6 USEFULNESS
175
PAPERS ON GUIDELINES
177
PAPERS ON AUDIT
181
3 IMPORTANCE
183
PAPERS ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
185
2 APPRAISAL
187
SUMMARY
189
2 SPECIFIC POINTS
190
PART III
195
THE zTEST AND THE tTEST
197
2 THE tTEST
200
3 EXAMPLES
206
4 SUMMARY
208
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
209
3 TWOWAY ANOVA
214
4 THREEWAY ANOVA
218
7 EXAMPLE
219
8 SUMMARY
220
NONPARAMETRIC TESTS
221
2 FISHERS EXACT PROBABILITY TEST
225
3 THE MANNWHITNEY TEST FOR TWO INDEPENDENT SAMPLES
226
4 THE WILCOXON TEST
228
5 KRUSKALWALLIS H TEST FOR MORE THAN TWO SAMPLES
229
6 EXAMPLES
230
7 SUMMARY
231
CORRELATION REGRESSION AND PREDICTION
233
2 REGRESSION AND PREDICTION
238
3 MULTIPLE PREDICTION
241
4 EXAMPLE
245
5 SUMMARY
246
MULTIVARIABLE ANALYSIS
247
2 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS
254
3 EXAMPLES
259
4 SUMMARY
260
OTHER STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
263
2 LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS
269
3 EXAMPLES
274
4 SUMMARY
276
REFERENCES
279
INDEX
283
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Page 1 - Sackett et al. (1996) as follows: Evidence based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
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