Critical Care Nephrology
ICU nephrology is rapidly emerging as an area of interest in nephrology. Nephrologists have always participated in the care of critically ill patients, including those with electrolyte and acid-base disorders, volume disorders, hypertensive crisis, and acute renal failure. Increased recognition of the overlap between critical care and nephrology, and recent advances in the understanding of acute renal failure and the application of renal replacement therapies, have brought increased attention to the nephrologist's role in the ICU. This handbook is written to provide an approach for the student of nephrology, at any level of training, with regards to critically ill patients. This book provides the essential information necessary to provide care for the nephrology patient in the ICU, highlighting physiology and pathophysiology to supplement the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic information.
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Sodium and water balance
Calcium magnesium and phosphorus
Outcomes and prognosis
acid acid–base acute renal failure airway pressure albumin aldosterone anion gap anticoagulation arterial azotemia bicarbonate blood Ca2+ cardiac cardiogenic shock catheter cause cell chloride chronic clearance clinical creatinine critically ill patients CRRT decreased diabetes insipidus diagnosis dialysis disorders distal dose drugs edema effects electrolytes elevated Engl etiology excretion factors fluid furosemide HCO3 hemodialysis hemodynamic hemofiltration hypertension hypokalemia hypomagnesemia hyponatremia hypophosphatemia hypotension hypovolemic increased infection infusion inhibitors intake intravenous intubation kidney disease loop diuretics loss magnesium mechanical ventilation mEq/L metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis mg q mg/dL mg/kg q mmol/L Nephrol nephrology normal oral osmolality output oxygen pCO2 phosphorus plasma potassium prerenal azotemia protein pulmonary reabsorption reduced renal function renal replacement therapy respiratory acidosis respiratory failure risk saline sepsis serum K+ serum sodium severe syndrome Table tidal volume total body transfusion treatment tubular tubule urinary urine vasopressin