Critical Information Infrastructure Protection: The Threat is Real : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, on Examining the Protection Efforts Being Made Against Foreign-based Threats to United States Critical Computer Infrastructure, October 6, 1999, Volume 4

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Page 13 - Not surprisingly, foreign intelligence services have adapted to using cyber tools as part of their espionage tradecraft. Even as far back as 1986, before the worldwide surge in Internet use, the KGB employed West German hackers to access Department of Defense systems in the well-known "Cuckoo's Egg
Page 13 - Terrorists groups are increasingly using new information technology and the Internet to formulate plans, raise funds, spread propaganda, and to communicate securely.
Page 13 - Criminal groups There is an increased use of cyber intrusions by criminal groups who attack systems for purposes of monetary gain. Foreign intelligence services Foreign intelligence services use cyber tools as part of their information gathering and espionage activities.
Page 14 - Hacktivism refers to politically motivated attacks on publicly accessible Web pages or e-mail servers. These groups and individuals overload e-mail servers and hack into Web sites to send a political message.
Page 35 - Internet, continue to revolutionize the way much of the world communicate and conducts business, this widespread interconnectivity also poses significant risks to the government's and our nation's computer systems and, more importantly, to the critical operations and infrastructures they support.
Page 36 - May 1999, we reported5 that as part of our tests of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) computer-based controls, we successfully penetrated several mission-critical systems, including one responsible for calculating detailed positioning data for each orbiting spacecraft and another that processes and distributes the scientific data received from these spacecraft Having obtained access, we could have disrupted ongoing command and control operations and modified or destroyed...
Page 12 - Last year saw the proliferation of several destructive computer viruses or "worms," including the Melissa Macro Virus, the Explore.Zip worm, and the CIH (Chernobyl) Virus. The NIPC frequently sends out warnings or advisories regarding particularly dangerous viruses, which can allow potential victims to take protective steps and minimize the destructive consequences of a virus. The Melissa Macro Virus was a good example of our two-fold response— encompassing both warning...
Page 15 - Insider threat The disgruntled organization insider is a principal source of computer crimes. Insiders may not need a great deal of knowledge about computer intrusions because their knowledge of a victim system often allows them to gain unrestricted access to cause damage to the system or to steal system data. The insider threat also includes outsourcing vendors. Virus writers Virus writers are posing an increasingly serious threat. Several destructive computer viruses and "worms" have harmed files...
Page 17 - This organization shall serve as a national critical infrastructure threat assessment, warning, vulnerability, and law enforcement investigation and response entity.