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The Role of Conventionality in Indirectness
The Functions of Please
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American English analysis Argentinian Spanish Australian English bitte Blum-Kulka borrow your notes British English Canadian French CCSARP data choice coding context conventional indirectness conventionally indirect cross-cultural cross-linguistic cultures Danish degree directness levels dominance elicited Ervin-Tripp example explicit external modification factors Fanshel German learners German native speakers grounders Gumperz Head Act hearer Hebrew IFID illocutionary force impositives indirect requests intensification interaction interlanguage internal interpretation Israeli Kasper Kiiche Lecturer levels of directness linguistic meaning modal modal verbs nonnative nonstandard situations obligation offence Olshtain opacity paper pleaselbitte policeman politeness marker potential pragmalinguistic pragmatic propositional Query Preparatory question questionnaire realization reference request situations request strategy requested act requesting behavior requests and apologies ride role Searle second language second language acquisition semantic social distance sociolinguistic sociopragmatic sorry specific speech act strategy types student substrategies supportive moves syntactic downgraders Table tion University utterance variation verbs waiter Wolfson Written Oral