Cyanobacterial (blue-green Algal) Toxins: A Resource Guide

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American Water Works Association, 1995 - Science - 229 pages
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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP AND PERSPECTIVE
4
PROJECT SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES
9
REFERENCES
10
PRODUCTION OCCURRENCE AND FATE OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS
12
Taxonomy
13
Morphology Pigments and Special Structures of Cyanobacteria
14
TAXONOMY OF TOXINPRODUCING CYANOBACTERIA
16
SCUM REMOVAL FLOW MANAGEMENT
131
Flow Management
132
Potassium Permanganate
136
Other Cyanobacterial Control Agents
137
SUMMARY
139
WATER TREATMENT FOR REMOVAL OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS
145
Coagulation and Filtration
146
Dissolved Air Flotation
148

FACTORS INFLUENCING BLOOM DEVELOPMENT AND TOXIN PRODUCTION
23
Factors Influencing Bloom Development
26
Toxin Production
37
ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS
43
RELEASE AND PERSISTANCE OF TOXINS IN WATER SUPPLIES
46
OCCURRENCE OF TOXIC BLOOMS WORLDWIDE AND NORTH AMERICA
48
HEALTH EFFECTS AND RISK ASSESSMENT
61
Implications for LongTerm Effects on Humans
72
Recreational Waters
77
Cyanobacteria as FoodSingle Cell Protein
78
TYPES OF TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA
79
GENERAL DIAGNOSIS OF A TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA EPISODE
80
STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY OF CYANOTOXINS
81
Anatoxins and Paralytic Shellfish Poisons The Neurotoxins
82
RISK ASSESSMENT
84
Risk Associated with Drinking Water
87
Calculation of Risk for Microcystins in Drinking Water Supplies
88
SUMMARY
89
REFERENCES
90
MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS
93
SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS
94
Methods
95
Frequency
97
DETECTION METHODS
98
Sample Preparation
102
Bioassay Methods
103
Biochemical Assay Methods
104
Instrumental Analytical Methods
105
SUMMARY
106
REFERENCES
108
CONTROL OF TOXIC CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS
115
Watershed Management
116
Physical Treatment Methods
122
Chemical Methods
125
Biological Methods
128
Oxidation
151
SUMMARY
154
REFERENCES
156
MANAGEMENT AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING
159
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING
160
WATER SUPPLY CONTINGENCY PLANNING
163
Developing Contingency Plans
164
Alert Levels Framework
168
Public Information and Media Notification
171
Recreational Guidelines
174
Exercising Contingency Plans
177
REFERENCES
178
PUBLIC INFORMATION
180
TO NOTIFY OR NOT?
181
RISK COMMUNICATION
182
General Public Information
184
Communicating About Health Risks
185
Dealing with the Media
189
COMMUNITY AWARENESS
191
REFERENCES
192
PARTICIPANTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH AND MANAGE...
193
NEW SOUTH WALES ALGAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
198
STRUCTURE
200
State Algae Contingency Plan
202
REGIONAL PLANS
203
MONITORING AND ALERT LEVELS
204
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION
205
BLOOM MANAGEMENT
206
Physical Controls
209
Chemical Controls
210
Land and Water Management
211
Waterway Management
212
EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC INFORMATION BROCHURES AND FACT SHEETS
213
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