Decentralization for Satisfying Basic Needs: An Economic Guide for Policymakers
A volume in Research on Hispanic and Latino Business Series Editors Michael William Mulnix and Esther Elena Lopez-Mulnix More than one in every five Latin Americans lives on less than $2 a day, and Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. The book tackles the problem of poverty and inequality in Latin America through the novel approach of using the decentralization of government functions to satisfy the basic needs of the poor. Decentralization can bring government closer to the people and strengthen the voice of the voiceless. Satisfying basic needs for services such as education and health care enhances productivity and imparts an indispensable opportunity to earn an income sufficient to emerge from poverty and to live a full life. Part 1 describes the poverty and inequality of Latin America and the Basic Needs Approach to Development. Part 2 introduces a model of decentralization as a step-by-step process, and it shows the policymaker how to implement decentralization in stages through matching its various degrees with real-world circumstances. Part 3 enriches the understanding of policymakers by analyzing real-world cases of decentralization in light of the decentralization model. The second edition includes two new chapters that cover the important but often neglected topic of taxation for inclusive development. Chapter 8 analyzes the influential tax advice of the World Bank in terms of its effect on decentralization and the satisfaction of basic needs. Appendix B of Chapter 8 presents an empirical analysis in support of the chapter's argument that the Bank's policy is in need of revision. Chapter 9 analyzes the effects of the World Bank's tax advice on El Salvador's tax reform and development process. Two other chapters have been extensively updated: Chapter 6 records and analyzes the rapid evolution of Mexico's Oportunidades program for health, education and nutrition, and Chapter 10 evaluates the progress of the United States' innovative program for foreign aid, The Millennium Challenge Account. Throughout the book, tables and references have been updated."
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INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SATISFYING BASIC NEEDS
EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY
DECENTRALIZATION FOR SATISFYING BASIC NEEDS
TRANSFERLED DECENTRALIZATION IN MEXICO
OPORTUNIDADES FOR EDUCATION HEALTH AND NUTRITION
COMMUNITY GOVERNMENT IN TLAXCALA
WORLD BANK TAX ADVICE Does It Foster Inclusive Development?
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administrative Aportaciones average beneficiaries benefits capita central government chapter citizens client power community governments compact cost Decentralization for Satisfying deconcentration degree of decentralization direct taxes donors Economic Guide effective El Salvador ernment expenditures extreme inequality FAIS federal fiscal foreign aid funds Gini index Giugale & Webb grant gross domestic product growth Guide for Policymakers health and nutrition implement inclusive development process increase indicators Latin America level of government living on less Lorenz Curve ment Mexico million monitoring municipalities objective Olmedo Carranza Oportunidades optimal tax planning political poverty and inequality poverty line primary production progressive taxation projects providers recipient redistribute income regressive Salvador satisfaction of basic satisfying basic needs satisfying the basic sector service delivery Skoufias social Table Tax Incidence tax rates tax reform tax revenues tax system tion tive Tlaxcala U.S. dollars value added tax voice and client WB tax advice weak World Bank