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05 level abandoned ﬁelds altitude annual precipitation Appendix approximately arithmetic mean aspect best ﬁt binomial distribution calculate capita G.N.P. chance variations Chapter Chatsworth coefficient column conﬁdence limits contingency table correlation coefﬁcient Critical values drumlins due to chance example expected frequency ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂow Formula 6.1 geography graph hand rank hypotheses and test increase independent inﬂuence Kendall’s large number latitude level is decided level of signiﬁcance mathematical McMurdo Sound measured NN _N Non-Parametric Statistics normal curve normal distribution null hypothesis number of pairs number of runs observed frequencies obtained paired values parent population pebbles Product Moment correlation proﬁle random variations randomly regression line rejection level relationship residuals result of chance sample means score semi-average method shows signiﬁcant difference signiﬁcantly slope angle Spearman’s standard deviation standard error temperature range three standard deviations tied rank variable wheat yield X2 test z-score