Death in Fifteenth Century Castile: Ideologies of the Elites
The theory of the three estates made clear distinctions between the functions of the two estates which comprised the elite of medieval society: the oradores (ecclesiastics) and the defensores (warriors or nobility). They had different lifestyles, clothing and ways of thinking about life. With regard to death, the responses dictated by Christian theology conflicted with the demands of the defensor ideology, based on the defence of individual honour, the pursuit of fama and the display of earthly power. This book charts the progress of the dying from their preparations for death, through their 'good' or 'bad' deaths, to their burials and otherworldly fates and also analyses the responses of the bereaved. Through the use of pre-fifteenth-century texts it is possible to demonstrate that the conflict between the orador and defensor ideologies did not begin in the fifteenth century, but rather had a much older origin, and it is suggested that the conflict continued after 1500. Textual sources include the Siete partidas, wills, chronicles, religious works such as the Arte de bien morir and literary works such as Cárcel de Amor and Celestina.
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afterlife Alfonso el Sabio alma Alvaro de Luna anima Arte de bien attitudes bad death bereaved Bernaldez l878 bien morir buen buena burial caballero Calisto Castile Castilian Castilla Celestina century Christian chronicler Church clerigo Conde conversos corpse cosas Cronica cuerpo dead deben deceased defensores despues Devil Deyermond diablo Diego de Valera Dios dying eglesia Enrique Enrique IV Enriquez del Castillo esto exemplum fama fecho Fernando fifteenth fifteenth-century fijo fizo fortaleza fuese funeral Gomez Manrique grand grief Heaven Hell honour ideology infierno King La Celestina Leriano manera Manrique Maria medieval Middle Ages Miracle monesterio moriendi mourning muerte muger mundo noble Nonetheless obras oradores and defensores pecados pena Perez de Guzman pues Pulgar punishment Purgatory rey don reyes de Castilla Rojas San Pedro l985 Sanchez de Vercial Santillana secular segunt Sempronio senor Siete partidas siglo sins soul spiritual suggests suicide testamento tiempo Toledo Valera vida Villena