Decline of Ohia (Metrosideros Polymorpha) in Hawaii: A Review
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1986 - Forests and forestry - 22 pages
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a'a flow activity Adee and Wood affected aluminum apparently associated attack bilineatus Bog Formation Dieback canopy cause changes characteristics characterized cinnamomi considered consists continue cover dead death decline area declining ohia dense depth determined Dieback area Dieback type diseases drainage dying elevation factors fertilizer Figure fungus ground Hawaiian healthy horizons increased indicate insects introduced island of Hawaii Kliejunas lava flows less limited lower major Mauna Kea Mauna Loa moderately mortality Mueller-Dombois observed occur ohia decline ohia forests Ohia-Koa organic pahoehoe flow plants poor poorly drained populations presence probably problem Pubescent pupae rainfall recorded relatively reported rootlets roots seedlings senescence severe decline showed similar slopes soil species stand stature stream stress subcanopy surface surface horizons symptoms tion trees usually varies various vegetation vigorous water levels watershed Wetland Dieback widely