## Decoherence: And the Quantum-To-Classical TransitionOver the course of the past decade, decoherence has become a ubiquitous scienti?c term popular in all kinds of research, from fundamental theories of quantum physics to applications in nanoengineering. Decoherence has been hailed as the solution to long-standing foundational problems dating back to the beginnings of quantum mechanics. It has been cursed as the key obstacle to next-generation technologies, such as quantum computers (another se- ingly omnipresent ?eld of research). And while decoherence has been directly observed in various experiments, its scope and meaning have often been m- understood and misrepresented. Decoherence makes a fantastic subject of research, as it touches upon many di?erent facets of physics, from phi- sophically inclined questions of interpretation all the way to down-to-earth problems in experimental settings and engineering applications. This book will introduce the reader, in an accessible and self-contained manner, to these various fascinating aspects of decoherence. It will focus in particularontherelationofdecoherencetotheso-calledquantum-to-classical transition, i. e. , the question of how decoherence may explain the emergence of the classical appearance of the macroscopic world around us from the underlying quantum substrate. Thescopeofthisbookisrelativelybroadinordertofamiliarizethereader withthemanyfacetsofdecoherence,inboththetheoreticalandexperimental domains. Throughout the book, I have sought to maintain a healthy balance betweentheconceptualideasassociatedwiththedecoherenceprogramonthe one hand and the formal and mathematical details on the other hand. This book will establish a proper understanding of decoherence as a pure quantum phenomenon and will emphasize the importance of the correct interpretation of the consequences and achievements of decoherence. |

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### Contents

II | 1 |

III | 13 |

IV | 14 |

V | 16 |

VI | 18 |

VII | 20 |

IX | 21 |

X | 26 |

LXXXII | 222 |

LXXXIII | 223 |

LXXXIV | 228 |

LXXXV | 237 |

LXXXVII | 242 |

LXXXVIII | 244 |

LXXXIX | 246 |

XC | 247 |

XI | 28 |

XII | 30 |

XIII | 32 |

XIV | 33 |

XV | 34 |

XVI | 36 |

XVII | 39 |

XVIII | 41 |

XIX | 43 |

XX | 44 |

XXI | 49 |

XXII | 50 |

XXIII | 53 |

XXIV | 55 |

XXV | 57 |

XXVI | 60 |

XXVIII | 63 |

XXIX | 65 |

XXX | 68 |

XXXI | 71 |

XXXII | 76 |

XXXIII | 81 |

XXXV | 83 |

XXXVI | 85 |

XXXVII | 88 |

XXXVIII | 93 |

XXXIX | 95 |

XL | 98 |

XLI | 101 |

XLII | 103 |

XLIII | 104 |

XLIV | 106 |

XLV | 109 |

XLVI | 110 |

XLVII | 112 |

XLVIII | 115 |

XLIX | 119 |

L | 122 |

LI | 128 |

LIII | 130 |

LIV | 132 |

LVI | 136 |

LVII | 138 |

LVIII | 139 |

LIX | 150 |

LX | 153 |

LXI | 154 |

LXII | 155 |

LXIII | 156 |

LXIV | 158 |

LXV | 165 |

LXVI | 169 |

LXVII | 171 |

LXVIII | 173 |

LXX | 174 |

LXXI | 178 |

LXXIII | 182 |

LXXIV | 188 |

LXXV | 191 |

LXXVI | 194 |

LXXVII | 203 |

LXXVIII | 206 |

LXXIX | 207 |

LXXX | 208 |

LXXXI | 218 |

XCI | 251 |

XCII | 255 |

XCIII | 258 |

XCV | 259 |

XCVI | 262 |

XCVII | 263 |

XCVIII | 265 |

XCIX | 267 |

C | 270 |

CI | 271 |

CII | 272 |

CIII | 275 |

CIV | 279 |

CV | 282 |

CVII | 284 |

CVIII | 289 |

CIX | 293 |

CX | 294 |

CXII | 297 |

CXIII | 298 |

CXIV | 300 |

CXVI | 301 |

CXVII | 302 |

CXVIII | 304 |

CXIX | 305 |

CXX | 307 |

CXXI | 311 |

CXXII | 314 |

CXXIII | 315 |

CXXIV | 320 |

CXXV | 321 |

CXXVI | 322 |

CXXVII | 325 |

CXXVIII | 326 |

CXXIX | 327 |

CXXX | 329 |

CXXXI | 330 |

CXXXII | 331 |

CXXXIII | 334 |

CXXXIV | 335 |

CXXXV | 336 |

CXXXVI | 337 |

CXXXVII | 340 |

CXXXVIII | 344 |

CXL | 345 |

CXLI | 346 |

CXLII | 347 |

CXLIII | 348 |

CXLIV | 349 |

CXLV | 351 |

CXLVII | 352 |

CXLVIII | 353 |

CXLIX | 354 |

CL | 356 |

CLII | 357 |

CLIII | 359 |

CLV | 361 |

CLVI | 365 |

CLVII | 368 |

CLVIII | 371 |

CLIX | 375 |

CLX | 379 |

383 | |

408 | |

### Other editions - View all

Decoherence: and the Quantum-To-Classical Transition Maximilian A. Schlosshauer Limited preview - 2007 |

Decoherence: and the Quantum-To-Classical Transition Maximilian A. Schlosshauer No preview available - 2010 |

### Common terms and phrases

ˆHint ˆHS ˆρ ancilla apparatus approximation assumption atom basis Born–Markov master equation cavity Chap classical coeﬃcients coherence components Copenhagen interpretation correlations corresponding decoher decoherence decoherence rate deﬁned deﬁnite density operator derivation described diﬀerent diﬃcult discussed in Sect double-slit experiment dynamics eﬀects eigenstates encoding energy ensemble entanglement environment environment-induced evolution example experiment experimental ﬁeld ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂux formalism Gaussian harmonic oscillator Hilbert space inﬂuence initial interaction Hamiltonian interference pattern interpretation macroscopic master equation measurement momentum Neumann observed outcomes phase photons physical pointer position problem quantum Brownian motion quantum computer quantum entanglement quantum error correction quantum mechanics quantum system reduced density matrix represented result role scattering Schmidt decomposition Schršodinger self-Hamiltonian simply slits spatial spectral density spin spin-environment spin–boson model subsystems suﬃciently superconducting superposition superposition principle superselection temperature theory thermal tion typically wave function wave packets which-path information Wigner Zurek

### Popular passages

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Page 400 - D. Kielpinski, V. Meyer, MA Rowe, CA Sackett, WM Itano, C. Monroe, and DJ Wineland, "A Decoherence-Free Quantum Memory Using Trapped Ions,

Page 396 - CH van der Wai, ACJ ter Haar, FK Wilhelm, RN Schouten, CJPM Harmans, TP Orlando, S. Lloyd, JE Mooij, Quantum superposition of macroscopic persistent-current states, Science 290,773 (2000) 116.

Page 400 - AY Kitaev. Quantum error correction with imperfect gates. In Quantum Communication, Computing and Measurement (Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. of Quantum Communication and Measurement), pages 181-188, New York, 1997.

Page 384 - General properties of lossless beam splitters in interferometry", Am. J. Phys. 49, 882, 1981. 3 T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger "A fast and compact quantum random number generator" Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 1675-1680, 2000. 4 G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, Ch. Simon, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger "Violation of Bell's inequality under strict Einstein locality conditions

Page 394 - Entanglement of a Mesoscopic Field with an Atom Induced by Photon Graininess in a Cavity,

Page 400 - DG Cory, MD Price, W. Maas. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, WH Zurek, TF Havel, and SS Somaroo, "Experimental quantum error correction,