Deep Culture: The Hidden Challenges of Global Living

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Multilingual Matters, Jan 1, 2007 - Education - 262 pages
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This is a straightforward guide to understanding the hidden cultural challenges of adapting to life abroad. Combining intercultural theory with the lived experiences of sojourners, it reviews key concepts, introduces a cultural learning model, explains hidden barriers to intercultural sensitivity, and brings clarity to debates about globalization and cultural difference. This is an essential resource for sojourners and educators. It presents a clear model for understanding intercultural adaptation. It uses sojourners' experiences to illustrate intercultural learning.
 

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Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Introduction
The Intercultural Experience
Intercultural Contact in the Global Village
Goals of This Book
Deep Culture
Deep culture and the global village
Bennetts six degrees of intercultural sensitivity
The ethnorelative stages
Validity of the DMIS
Validity across cultures
The DMIS and mixed states
Intercultural sensitivity and deep culture
Diagramming Intercultural Learning
A Model of Cultural Learning

Avoiding deep intercultural learning
Perspectives on Intercultural Learning
Objections to Culture
Competing conceptualizations
Edward Hall from culture to intercultural
Objections to Culture
Social identity versus communities of shared meaning
Cultural as a causal agent
Culture as Experienced by Sojourners
Understanding the Deep Structure of Culture
Culture as stable frameworks of interpretation
The deep structure of cultural difference
Research into Deep Cultural Difference
Linguistic relativity
Deep culture and cognitive processes
Dimensions and domains
Approaches to Understanding Value Orientations
Hofstedes value orientations
The cultural onion model of Trompenaars and HampdenTurner
Norms values and hidden assumptions
Human Universals and the Biological Bases of Culture
Cultural programming and individual choice
Deep Cultural Difference and Increased Prejudice
Deep culture and increased prejudice
Cultural Learning as Pattern Recognition
Resisting the Demands of Cultural Learning
Deep cultural difference and absolute judgments
Level of Investment and the Depth of Intercultural Resistance
Finding Neutral Intercultural Terminology
Negative Reactions are Normal
What is Successful Cultural Learning?
Intercultural education goals versus intercultural adaptation success
Intercultural competencies in language education
Intercultural success in crosscultural adaptation research
A Phenomenological View of Intercultural Success
Constructive marginality
Critiques of Bennett
Meaningful versus Deep Intercultural Experiences
Relationships as a measure of cultural depth
Language learning and deep culture
Schema for describing the depth of cultural experiences
From Goals to Process
The Process of Intercultural Learning
Culture Shock and Cultural Learning
The anatomy of culture shock
Communication and interactive demands
The identity demands of intercultural learning
Deep and Surface Adaptive Demands
Resistance acceptance and adaptation
The Stages of Cultural Learning
The Deep Culture Model
Definition of terms
Intercultural Success Intercultural Failure
Deep and Demanding Intercultural Experiences
The Inevitability of Intercultural Learning
Cultural Learning Dilemmas and Orientations
The Cultural Learning Process
Resistance to Change
Resistance versus dislike
Resistance and rapport
Reversal
Explicit demands and symbolic significance
Deep Resistance
Resistance versus defense
Resistance Ethnocentrism Racism and Prejudice
Acceptance of Difference
Like versus acceptance
Surface Acceptance
Minimization versus mixed states
Intellectual acceptance versus deep acceptance
Deep Acceptance
Deep acceptance and language learning
Acceptance and adaptation
Adaptation and Cultural Identity
Norms and values the rules of a new community
Enforced adaptation adapting because we have to
Surface adaptation explicit learning and symbolic meanings
The challenges of surface adaptation
Deep adaptation and language learning
Deep adaptation and cultural code switching
Deep adaptation and identity shifts
Rapport and cultural identity
Resistance and Rapport Why Not Everyone Reacts the Same
Relationships and Language Learning
Cultural Distance
Beyond Adaptation
The Chameleon
Identity Questions and Deep Cultural Learning
Binary intercultural experiences and triangulation
Implications for the Global Village
Applying the vocabulary of intercultural experiences
ExplicitImplicit Culture SurfaceDeep Intercultural Experiences
Relationships Language Learning and Intercultural Learning
Principles for Intercultural Education
Conclusion
A Glossary of the Intercultural Experience
Background of the Sojourners
References
Copyright

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About the author (2007)

Born in California, Joseph Shaules (PhD) has worked in language and intercultural education for more than 20 years. For ten years he was a tenured faculty member at Rikkyo University, Tokyo. He has worked in curriculum design, educational publishing, and was the co-presenter of the NHK television program Crossroads Caf . He teaches courses in intercultural education at the Rikkyo Graduate School of Intercultural Communication. He does intercultural training in Japan, and has lived and worked abroad (Mexico, Japan, and France) for more than 20 years. He is proficient in English, Japanese, French and Spanish. He created the PICO Intercultural Learning System and is the director of the Japan Intercultural Institute.

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