Deep Space Flight and Communications: Exploiting the Sun as a Gravitational Lens

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 9, 2009 - Science - 402 pages
0 Reviews

The majority of books dealing with prospects for interstellar flight tackle the problem of the propulsion systems that will be needed to send a craft on an interstellar trajectory. The proposed book looks at two other, equally important aspects of such space missions, and each forms half of this two part book.

Part 1 looks at the ways in which it is possible to exploit the focusing effect of the Sun as a gravitational lens for scientific missions to distances of 550 AU and beyond into interstellar space. The author explains the mechanism of the Sun as a gravitational lens, the scientific investigations which may be carried out along the way to a distance of 550 AU (and at the 550 AU sphere itself), the requirements for exiting the Solar System at the highest speed and a range of project ideas for missions entering interstellar space.

Part 2 of the book deals with the problems of communicating between an interstellar spaceship and the Earth, especially at very high speeds. Here the author assesses a range of mathematical tools relating to the Karhunen-Ločve Transform (KLT) for optimal telecommunications, technical topics that may one day enable humans flying around the Galaxy to keep in contact with the Earth. This part of the book opens with a summary of the author’s 2003 Pešek Lecture presented at the IAC in Bremen, which introduces the concept of KLT for engineers and ‘newcomers’ to the subject. It is planned to include a DVD containing the full mathematical derivations of the KLT for those interested in this important mathematical tool whilst the text itself will contain the various results without outlines of the mathematical proofs. Astronautical engineers will thus be able to see the application of the results without getting bogged down in the mathematics.

 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

112 Uniform motion
185
113 Decelerated motion
188
114 Checking the KLT of decelerated motion by Matlab simulations
194
115 Total energy of the noisy signal from relativistic spaceships in decelerated and uniform motion
195
exploiting the KLT to detect an alien spaceship approaching the Earth in decelerated motion
199
117 References
200
KLT of radio signals from relativistic spaceships in hyperbolic motion
203
123 Total energy of signals from relativistic spaceships in hyperbolic motion
205

22 Visible and infared stellar parallaxes
18
222 Age of the Galaxy
19
224 Stellar evolution
20
225 Targets of opportunity
22
232 Astronomy
24
233 Cosmology
25
234 Solar system studies
26
241 Dust
27
242 Plasma and energetic particle distributions
28
245 Plasma waves
29
26 References
30
Magnifying the nearby stellar systems
33
33 Keplerian theory of simple hyperbolic flybys
36
34 The flyby of the Sun performed by the FOCAL spacecraft
43
35 References
45
Astrodynamics to exit the solar system at the highest speed
47
421 Elementary background planar problem
48
422 Optimization of a single Jupiter flyby
49
423 Two optimized Jupiter flybys plus one intermediate Sun flyby
50
43 A chemically powered closeSun flyby?
51
44 Theory of the Sun Flyby enhanced by a perihelion boost
52
45 Determining the perihelion boost by knowing the target star the time to get 550 AU and the Sun approach
53
46 References
57
SETI and the FOCAL space mission
58
52 The narrowband assumption SETI
60
53 A short introduction to the KLT
63
54 Mathematics of the KLT
64
advantages of the KLT for the FOCAL space mission
67
GLSETI gravitational lensing SETI Receiving far ETI signals focused by the gravity of other stars
71
62 Only two types of SETI searches from the Earth up to 2001
72
623 Searches
73
625 Allsky survey
74
626 Common requirements
75
632 Summary
80
64 Maccones equation relating to 1 magnification of lensing star 2 distance of the ET transmitter and 3 power of the ET transmitter
81
the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Visitation
83
66 References
84
The gravitational lenses of Alpha Centauri A B C and of Barnards Star
85
72 The Suns gravity+plasma lens as a model for the nearby stars
86
73 Assumed data about Alpha Centauri A B C and Barnards Star
90
74 Gravitational lens of the naked Sun
93
75 Gravitational lens of the naked Alpha Centauri A
98
76 Gravitational lens of the naked Alpha Centauri B
101
77 Gravitational Lens of the naked Alpha Centauri C Proxima
104
78 Gravitational lens of the naked Barnards Star
107
79 Conclusions
110
The Coronal Plasma pushing the focus of the gravity+plasma lens far beyond 550AU
113
82 The refraction of electromagnetic waves in the Sun Coronal Plasma
115
83 Summary of the Sun pure gravity naked Sun lightbending theory
116
focal axis intercept for any ray passing at distance b from the Sun
118
85 Asymptotic z straight light path
122
closeSun middistance and atinfinity LK and F Corona respectively
123
87 Focal distance vs height and minimal focal distance for any assigned frequency
127
88 The two causes of the gravity+plasma lens of the sun
130
89 Observing frequencies for the closeSun middistance and atinfintity approxiamtions
131
810 References
134
NASAs Interstellar Probe ISP20102070 and the Cosmic Microwave Background CMB
135
2010 to 2055
136
93 Looking at the 2728 K Cosmic Microwave Backround through the Suns gravity lens by virtue of NASAs Interstellar Probe ISP
137
94 The effective minimal focal distance for the gravity+plasma lens looking at the 27K Cosmic Microwave Background is 763 AU which NASAs Int...
142
95 Improving COBEs angular resolution by nine orders of magnitude by looking at the 27K Cosmic Microwave Background by virtue of NASAs Int...
145
96 Conclusions
146
98 References
147
KLToptimized telecommunications
148
A simple introduction to the KLT
151
103 A heuristic derivation of the KL expansion
152
104 The KLT finds the best basis eigenbasis in Hilbert space spanned by the eigenfunctions of the autocorrelation of Xt
155
105 Continuous time vs discrete time in the KLT
157
just a linear transformation in the Hilbert space
158
The Final Variance theorem
159
108 BAM Bordered Autocorrelation Method to find the KLT of stationary processes only
162
109 Developments in 2007 and 2008
168
1010 KLT of stationary white noise
169
1011 KLT of an ET sinusoidal carrier buried white cosmic noise
170
1012 Analytic proof of the BAMKLT
172
1013 KLT signaltonoise SNR as a function of the final T eigenvalue index n and alien frequencies v
174
1014 How to eavesdrop on alien chat
175
1015 Conclusions
176
1016 Acknowledgments
177
KLT of radio signals from relativistic spaceships in uniform and decelerated motion
180
124 KLT for signals emitted in asymptotic motion by Matlab simulations
206
125 Checking the KLT of asymptotic hyperbolic motion by motion by Matlab simulations
210
126 Signal total energy as a stochastic process of T
211
preparatory calculations
214
128 KL expansion for the instantaneous energy of the noise emitted by a relativistic spaceship
220
129 Conclusion
221
KLT of radio signals from relativistic spaceships in arbitrary motion
223
132 Arbitrary spaceship acceleration
225
1322 KL expansion of the Gaussian noise emitted by a spaceship having an arbitrary acceleration profile
227
1323 Total noise energy
229
1324 KL expansion of noise instantaneous energy
230
133 Asymptotic arbitrary spaceship acceleration
232
1332 Asymptotic KL expansion for noise
234
1333 Asymptotic total noise energy
236
134 Powerlike asymptotic spaceship
238
1342 Powerlike asymptotic KL expansion for noise
239
1343 Approximated powerlike asymptotic KL expansion for noise
241
1344 Powerlike asymptotic total noise energy
242
1345 Powerlike asymptotic KL expansion for noise instantaneous energy
243
1346 Approximated powerlike asymptotic KL expansion for noise instantaneous energy
246
135 Conclusion
247
136 References
248
Genetics aboard relativistic spaceships
249
142 Diffusion partial differential equation for Xt
250
143 Firstpassage time for Xt
252
144 Relativistic interstellar flight
254
145 Timerescaled Brownian motion
255
146 Genetics
256
147 Relativistic genetics
258
148 A glance ahead
259
149 References
260
Engineering tradeo s for the FOCAL spacecraft antenna
262
Reference
264
FOCAL Sun flyby characteristics
269
Mission to the solar gravitational focus by solar sailing
278
C2 Example sailcraft for SGF mission
282
C3 Trajectory profile for SGF mission
283
C4 Conclusions
290
FOCAL radio interferometry by a tethered system
293
D2 References
296
Interstellar propulsion by Sunlensing
298
E2 Highlights on research areas in interstellar propulsion by Sunlensing
300
light from Sirius naked Sun gravity lens and relevent solar sail size
301
E4 Conclusions
305
Brownian motion and its time rescaling
307
F2 Brownian motion essentials
308
F3 KLT of Brownian motion
310
F4 White noise as the derivative of Brownian motion with respect to time
311
F5 Introduction to time rescaling
313
F7 Time rescaling and Gaussian properties of Xt
315
F8 Orthogonal increments for nonoverlapping time intervals
317
F10 References
324
Maccone First KLT Theorem KLT of all timerescaled Brownian motions
325
G3 Solution of the integral equation for eigenfunctions
328
G4 A simpler formula for Bessel Function order
334
G5 Stability criterion for eigenfunctions
335
G6 References
337
KLT of the Bt2H timerescaled Brownian motion
338
H3 KL expansion of BpHt
341
H4 Total energy of BpHt
346
H5 References
349
Maccone Second KLT Theorem KLT of all timerescaled square Brownian motions
351
13 KLT of any zeromean timerescaled square process
352
14 KLT of square Brownian motion
356
I5 Checking the KLT of the square Brownian motion by Matlab simualtions
361
KLT of the B˛t˛ᵸ timerescaled square Brownian motion
363
J2 Preparatory calculations about B˛t˛ˣ+š
366
J3 KL expansion of the square process B˛t˛ᵸ
371
J4 Checking the KLT of B˛t˛ᵸ
373
J5 References
374
A Matlab code for KLT simulations
375
K3 The file input_data_togglem
377
K4 The file Brownian_Autocorrelationm
379
K5 The file process_pathm
380
K7 The file analytic_KLTm
382
K8 The file ANALYTIC_KLT_square_brow_motionm
385
K9 The file ANALYTIC_KLT_uniform_relm
386
K10 Conclusions
389
Index
390
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information