Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship
Now Publishers Inc, 2008 - Business & Economics - 67 pages
Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship reviews the most common concepts of entrepreneurship from the theoretical economics literature, identifying common elements and pointing to important differences. The purpose is to compare these theoretical ideas of entrepreneurship with the measures used in empirical country-level studies. Since a coherent or unifying definition of entrepreneurship has not emerged, the authors explain that it is important to be precise about the relationship between the different theoretical aspects of entrepreneurship and the empirical measures. This is revealed by comparing entrepreneurial activity across OECD countries using measures that reflect different theoretical aspects. Based on various data sources, the relative ranking of countries is very sensitive to the empirical measure used.
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21 Early Definitions
22 Schumpeter and Knight
23 Kirzner and Schultz
24 Recent Theories
25 The Entrepreneur in Economic Modeling
33 The Business Ownership Rate
34 Entry and Exit Rates
35 GEM and the Total Entrepreneurial Activity Index
36 Other Measures
Comparison and Discussion
A1 SelfEmployment Rates
aspects of entrepreneurship Audretsch Austria Belgium Blanchﬂower 2000 business owners business ownership rate Cantillon capture creative destruction deﬁ deﬁned deﬁnition of entrepreneurship Denmark diﬀerent measures diﬃcult dimensions of entrepreneurship ECHP economic employment rate entrepre entrepreneurial ability entrepreneurial activity entrepreneurial countries entry and exit Entry Exit entry/exit rates equilibrium Eurostat exit rates Finland ﬁrst ﬂow measures Germany Greece H´ebert and Link high-skilled entry human capital incorporated busi indicator of entrepreneurship individuals innovative activity Ireland Kirzner and Schultz Kirznerian and Schultzian Knight Knightian entrepreneur Knightian entrepreneurship Luxembourg measure of entrepreneurial measures of entrepreneurship Measuring Entrepreneurship models neo-classical Netherlands OECD OECD countries OECD Labor Force overall self-employment rates owner–managers Portugal proﬁt ranking of countries residual claimant risk aversion role Say’s Schultzian entrepreneurs Schumpeter Schumpeter’s Schumpeterian entrepreneur Schumpeterian entrepreneurship self-employed ship speciﬁc stock measures survey Sweden Table TEA index theoretical theories of entrepreneurship uncertainty uncertainty-bearing University of Aarhus unpaid family workers
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