Delay of Budbreak in Grapevines Using Soybean Oils

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Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 2005 - 138 pages
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'Chancellor', 'Chambourcin', and 'Chardonel' grapevines were treated with soybean oil-based adjuvants then compared to untreated (control) vines for phytotoxicity, date of bud break, yield components, and fruit composition. The purpose of dormant oil applications was to delay budbreak without affecting date of fruit ripening, yield, or fruit composition. In the first year, Prime Oil and Amigo were applied at a 10% concentration (v/v) to runoff with a backpack sprayer on three different dates during the dormant season. Prime Oil, but not Amigo, was not found to be phytotoxic to dormant buds in all three cultivars. Oil treatments also led to a significant budbreak delay in all cultivars ranging from between 1 to 20 days as compared to control vines. The oil treatments induced a delay in bud development that was associated with reduced respiration (CO2 evolution). Cultivars that were damaged by Prime Oil applications had reduced yields and delayed fruit maturity. Conversely, Amigo did not affect yield components or fruit composition. In the second year, no phytotoxicity was observed from the six rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10%) of Amigo applied to 'Chambourcin' and 'Chardonel' grapevines. Only rates of 8 and 10% (v/v) caused a significant budbreak delay in 'Chardonel'. Nevertheless, none of the rates resulted in any deleterious effects on fruit set, harvest date, yield components, or fruit composition in either cultivar. These results indicate that soybean oils may be a viable option for spring frost protection, especially for early breaking cultivars in poor sites where spring frost injury is likely.

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