Desalination:: A National Perspective

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National Academies Press, Aug 14, 2008 - Science - 312 pages
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There has been an exponential increase in desalination capacity both globally and nationally since 1960, fueled in part by growing concern for local water scarcity and made possible to a great extent by a major federal investment for desalination research and development. Traditional sources of supply are increasingly expensive, unavailable, or controversial, but desalination technology offers the potential to substantially reduce water scarcity by converting the almost inexhaustible supply of seawater and the apparently vast quantities of brackish groundwater into new sources of freshwater.

Desalination assesses the state of the art in relevant desalination technologies, and factors such as cost and implementation challenges. It also describes reasonable long-term goals for advancing desalination technology, posits recommendations for action and research, estimates the funding necessary to support the proposed research agenda, and identifies appropriate roles for governmental and nongovernmental entities.

 

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Contents

Summary
1
1 Introduction
13
2 Historical and Contemporary Context for Desalination
19
3 Water for the Future
38
4 State of the Technology
59
5 Environmental Issues
108
6 The Costs and Benefits of Desalination
147
7 Implementation Issues
182
References
233
Glossary
262
Appendixes
269
Mass and Energy Balance on Reverse Osmosis System
275
Desalination Economics Summary Data
279
Estimating Unit Costs of Water Supply Options
286
Water Science and Technology Board
291
Biographical Sketches for Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology
293

8 A Strategic Research Agenda for Desalination
212

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