Design and Construction of Urban Stormwater Management Systems

Front Cover
ASCE Publications, Jan 1, 1993 - Technology & Engineering - 760 pages
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Prepared byØtheØTask Committee of the Urban Water Resources Research Council of ASCE. Copublished by ASCE and the Water Environment Federation.

Design and Construction of Urban Stormwater Management Systems presents a comprehensive examination of the issues involved in engineering urban stormwater systems. This Manual?which updates relevant portions of Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers, MOP 37?reflects the many changes taking place in the field, such as the use of microcomputers and the need to control the quality of runoff as well as the quantity. Chapters are prepared by authors with experience and expertise in the particular subject area. The Manual aids the practicing engineer by presenting a brief summary of currently accepted procedures relating to the following areas:

financial services; regulations;Ø surveys and investigations;Ø design concepts and master planning;Ø hydrology and water quality;Ø storm drainage hydraulics; andØ computer modeling.
 

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Contents

EVOLUTION OF URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
1
II NEED FOR THE MANUAL
2
III ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL
4
IV THE INTENDED AUDIENCE
5
VI GLOSSARY
8
VII REFERENCES
12
FINANCIAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY CONCERNS
15
II FINANCIAL
16
VI DROP STRUCTURES
369
B Open Channel Drops Drop Spillways
371
1 Straight Drop Structure
372
C Drop Shaft Structures
375
1 Completely Flooded Drop Shafts
377
4 Design Considerations
379
B SingleBarrel Siphons
380
D Design Criteria and Practices
381

A State and Federal Sources
17
2 Soil Conservation Service SCS
18
4 Community Development Block Grant Program
19
6 National Weather Service NWS
20
1 General Tax Revenues
21
4 Special Assessments
23
6 Stormwater Utilities
24
8 Fee in Lieu of OnSite DetentionRetention
25
10 Dedications
26
B Liability Issues
28
2 Public Liability
29
3 Other Liability Considerations
30
4 Limiting Liability
31
B Section 404 Permits
33
C Erosion Control Stormwater Detention and Subdivision Ordinances and Codes
34
D Stormwater Quality
36
V REFERENCES
37
SURVEYS AND INVESTIGATIONS
39
III MONITORING AND DATA COLLECTION
40
IV INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN
41
C Soils and Geologic Data
42
E Regulatory Data
43
V FINANCIAL DATA
44
DESIGN CONCEPTS AND MASTER PLANNING
46
III DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
48
B Effects of Urbanization
49
IV BASIC CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS
50
V PREVENTIVE AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
51
B Delineation of Floodplains
52
C Corrective Actions
53
A Major Drainageways
54
C Storm Sewers
55
H Detention Facilities
56
VII RISK ANALYSIS
57
B Methodology
58
IX DRAINAGE MASTER PLANNING
59
X REFERENCES
60
HYDROLOGY AND INTRODUCTION TO WATER QUALITY
63
B Quality Of Urban Runoff
65
B Design Points Catchments and Return Periods
66
C Methods For Computing Stormwater Flows
67
D Design Rainfall
68
1 Synthetic Design Storms
69
2 Rainfall Depth
70
3 Temporal Distribution
71
4 Spatial Distribution
77
5 Other Methods for Design Hydrology
78
2 Infiltration
79
4 Horton Equation
81
5 Soil Conservation Service Equation
82
F Runoff Hydrographs
83
2 TimeArea Curves
86
3 Kinematic Wave
87
4 Nonlinear Reservoir
88
G Rational Method For Peak Discharge
90
2 Runoff Coefficient
91
3 Rainfall Intensity
92
5 Contributing Area
94
H Assessing the Reasonableness of Computed Flows
96
I Interpretation of Computed Flows
97
III QUALITY OF STORM SEWER DISCHARGES
98
2 Interactions with Sewage Systems
99
6 Infiltration of Contaminated Ground Water
100
2 Runoff from Construction Sites
102
4 Runoff from Roads and Highways
103
C Water Quality Impacts of Storm Water Discharges
104
1 Parameters Associated with Impacts
105
2 Assessing Impacts
107
IV REFERENCES
109
STORM DRAINAGE HYDRAULICS
113
A Steady vs Unsteady Flow
115
C Open Channel vs Closed Conduit Flow
116
E Subcritical vs Supercritical Flow
117
IV CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
121
V CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
123
A Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines
125
C Froude Number
126
D Critical Depth
128
VI NORMAL DEPTH
129
VII WATER SURFACE PROFILES
136
VIII HYDRAULIC JUMP
138
IX FRICTION LOSSES
141
A HazenWilliams Formula
142
B DarcyWeisbach Equation
143
X MINOR LOSSES
146
A Transition Losses
148
B Entrance Losses
149
D Bend Losses
157
XII SPECIAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
163
B Culverts
168
D Drop Structures
169
XIII ROUTING
170
B Detention Basin Routing By Modified Puls Method
172
2 General RoutingDesign Procedure for Stormwater Detention Facilities
173
3 Multistage Detention Facilities
178
XIV REFERENCES
180
COMPUTER MODELING
183
II PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
184
III URBAN MODELING OBJECTIVES AND CONSIDERATIONS
185
B When Should A Model Be Used?
186
IV MODEL DEFINITION
188
V OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE MODELING OPTIONS
189
B Continuous Versus SingleEvent Simulation
190
1 Constant Concentration or Unit Loads
191
2 Spreadsheets
192
3 Statistical Approaches
194
4 RegressionRating Curve Approaches
196
5 Buildup and Washoff
197
6 Related Mechanisms
199
VII STEPS IN MODELING
200
B Basic Input Data
201
D Sensitivity Analysis
202
F Verification
203
H Production Runs
204
VIII MODELS
205
2 HSPF
208
5 Statistical
209
8 TR55
210
10 HEC2
211
X COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND DESIGN CADD
212
XI SUMMARY
213
XII REFERENCES
215
DESIGN OF DRAINAGE CONVEYANCES
225
II FREQUENCY OF DESIGN RUNOFF
226
III GENERALIZED DESIGN PROCEDURES
227
5 Obtain Site Development Plan and Formulate Conceptual Alternatives
228
7 Preliminary Design
229
8 Review Alternates and Formulate Preferred Alternative for Final Design
232
3 Hydraulically Design the Open Channel and Storm Sewer Systems
233
A Location Requirements
234
C Grade and Cover
235
2 Design Procedures
236
B Pressurized Storm Sewers
238
1 Basic Design Procedures
240
2 Allowable Pressures
241
4 Within the System
242
5 Friction and Form Losses
243
B Curb Opening Inlets
244
C Grate Inlets
245
3 Slotted Drain Inlets
246
G Inlet Selection
247
B Inadvertent InfiltrationExfiltration
249
VIII STREET AND INTERSECTION DESIGN
250
B Effect of Stormwater Runoff on Street Traffic Capacity
251
2 Cross Fall
253
4 Street Capacity for the Major System Design Runoff
255
5 CrossStreet Flow
256
6 Intersections
257
7 Special Considerations
259
IX MAJOR DRAINAGEWAYS OPEN CHANNELS
260
A Choice of Channel
262
B Hydraulic Analysis
263
2 Hydraulic Roughness Values and Loss Coefficients
264
3 StageDischarge Data
265
2 Subcritical Flow
267
D GrassLined Artificial Channels
269
2 Preliminary Design Criteria
274
4 Freeboard
278
8 Erosion Control
279
9 Water Surface Profile
280
F Other Channels
283
X CULVERTS AND BRIDGES
286
1 Culvert Hydraulics
288
2 Design Procedure and Example
295
3 Design Considerations
306
4 DebrisSafety Racks
308
B Bridges
309
2 Hydraulic Evaluation
313
XI APPLICATION OF THE RATIONAL METHOD IN DESIGN
315
XII ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
318
1 Procedures for Economic Evaluation
319
3 Operation and Maintenance Costs
320
7 Nonquantifiable Factors
321
B Engineers Estimate of Construction Cost
322
SPECIAL STRUCTURES AND APPURTENANCES
327
A Determination of Scour Potential
328
3 Tractive Force
329
B Channel Side Slopes
332
D Structural Measures for Channel Protection
336
2 Flexible and Rigid Erosion Protection
337
3 Temporary and Permanent Erosion Protection
338
B Channel Bank and Bed Protection
339
2 Gabions
346
3 Manmade Protection Materials
347
4 Common Channel Protection Measures Other Than Riprap and Gabions
349
C Riprap Protection at Outlets
351
2 Apron Materials
354
IV CHECK DAMS
355
B Porous Check Dams
357
D Check Dam Design Considerations
358
V ENERGY DISSIPATORS
359
B Riprap Basins for Small Culvert Outlets
360
C Stilling Basins
362
3 Stilling Basin Categories
364
VIII SIDEOVERFLOW WEIRS
382
B Design Considerations
383
C Design Practices
384
2 Rising Water Surface
385
IX FLOW SPLITTERS JUNCTIONS FLAP GATES AND MANHOLES
386
C Flap Gates
387
2 Frame and Cover
388
5 Deep Manholes
390
D Storage
391
1 Pump Types
394
2 Pump Selection
398
XI REFERENCES
399
COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS
403
2 Static Regulators
405
3 Dynamic Regulators
408
C Overflows
412
II COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW POLLUTION LOADS
413
III METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS
416
B Data Collection
417
3 Receiving Water Sampling
419
2 Land Use and Zoning
420
E Definition of Receiving Water Issues and Goals
421
B Identification of Applicable CSO Mitigation Techniques
422
C Combined Sewer System Maintenance
423
2 Interceptor Sediment Removal
424
E Structural Alternatives
425
2 CSO System Control
427
3 Treatment
428
4 Sewer Separation
430
F Selection of CSO Mitigation Techniques
431
V REFERENCES
432
DESIGN OF STORMWATER IMPOUNDMENTS
436
B Water Quality Provisions
437
II TYPES OF IMPOUNDMENTS
438
III THE TWO BASIC APPROACHES
442
B Watershed Planning and Regional Detention Basins
444
IV DETERMINING STORAGE AND OUTLET CHARACTERISTICS
448
B Soil Conservation Service Methods
451
C Other Modeling Procedures
452
B Trash Racks
454
C Outlet Safety
457
VI SPILLWAYS EMBANKMENTS AND UNDERDRAINAGE
458
B Embankments
460
C Underdrainage of Impoundment Areas
462
2 Surface Drainage Management
463
VII SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
465
B Wet Basins
466
C Infiltration Basins
469
1 Water Table Bedrock and Groundwater Conditions
470
3 Excavation
471
D Onstream Impoundments
472
1 Sewer and Intake Sizing
473
G Underground Impoundments
474
IX OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
480
B Maintenance Operations General
482
X REFERENCES
483
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT
486
III AXIOMS FOR THE DESIGN OF URBAN RUNOFF QUALITY CONTROLS
488
IV SOURCE CONTROLS
489
B Swales and Filter Strips
493
1 Design Considerations
495
2 Maintenance
496
D Infiltration Devices
497
2 Infiltration Trenches
501
VI DETENTION PRACTICES
502
A Dry Detention
503
B Wet Detention Ponds
504
VII USING WETLANDS FOR STORMWATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT
510
IX IMPLEMENTING STORMWATER QUALITY CONTROLS
511
XI REFERENCES
513
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
516
C Economic Considerations
517
II MATERIALS FOR OPEN LINED CHANNELS
518
2 Cast Iron Pipe CIP
519
4 Vitrified Clay Pipe VCP
521
1 Ductile Iron Pipe DIP
522
3 Corrugated Aluminum Pipe
524
4 Thermoplastic Pipe
525
5 Thermoset Plastic Pipe
528
C Pipe Joints
529
1 Gasket Pipe Joints
530
6 Elastomeric Sealing Compound Pipe Joints
531
IV MAINTENANCE
532
C Lifecycle Stages of a Storm Drainage System
533
D Maintenance of Open Channel Drainage Systems
534
2 Drainage Service Stage
535
E Maintenance of Piped Drainage Systems
536
3 Rehabilitation Stage
537
STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS
539
III PROJECT LIFETIME FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN
540
IV ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CONDITIONS
541
C Groundwater Conditions
542
E Superimposed Loadings
543
V DETERMINATION OF LOADS
544
C Earth Loads
545
D Groundwater Loads
548
E Superimposed Loads
549
B Overturning
550
D Uplift and Flotation
553
E Soil Bearing Pressures
555
B Selection of Materials
556
B Loads on Sewers Caused by Gravity Earth Forces
557
2 Types of Loading Conditions
558
3 Loads for Trench Conditions
559
4 Loads for Embankment Conditions
565
5 Loads for Jacked Sewer Pipe and Certain Tunnel Conditions
574
6 Loads for Tunnels
578
7 Alternate Design Method
579
C SUPERIMPOSED LOADS ON SEWERS
580
3 Highway Loads
584
4 Sewer Pipe Under Airport Pavements
589
5 Sewer Pipe Under Railway Tracks
590
6 Sewer Pipe Under Rigid Pavement
591
D Pipe Bedding and Backfilling
599
2 Foundation
601
5 Initial Backfill
602
6 Final Backfill
603
2 Rigid Sewer Pipe
604
3 Flexible Sewer Pipe
605
F Rigid Sewer Pipe Design
607
2 Laboratory Strength
608
4 Rigid Sewer Pipe InstallationClasses of Bedding and Bedding Factors for Trench Conditions
609
5 Variable Bedding Factors for Trench Conditions
612
7 Field Strength in Embankments
613
G Flexible Sewer Pipe Design
617
2 Design of Plastic Sewer Pipe
621
3 Soil Classification
624
4 Design of Corrugated Metal Sewer Pipes
625
IX DESIGN OF OTHER SPECIFIC STRUCTURES
626
3 Soil Cement and Roller Compacted Concrete
628
B Open Channel Structures
629
C Closed Conduit Appurtenances
630
2 Junction Boxes
631
D DetentionRetention Dams and Ponds
632
X REFERENCES
633
CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
637
A Drawing Preparation
638
3 IndexLegend
639
7 Closed Conduit Open Channel and Detention Pond Stormwater Plans and Profiles
640
10 Special Details
641
A Addenda
642
2 Instructions to Bidders
643
3 Bid Form
644
4 Responsibility for Accuracy of Bidding Information
645
C Contract Forms
646
1 Form of Contract
647
3 Special Forms
648
IV CHECKLIST
650
3 Bid Form
651
2 Supplementary Conditions
652
V REFERENCES
653
CONSTRUCTION METHODS
654
II CONSTRUCTION SURVEYS
655
B Right of Way
656
III SAFETY
659
IV SITE PREPARATION
660
C Utilities
661
C Large Scale Excavation
662
E Dredging
664
VI OPENTRENCH CONSTRUCTION
665
C Sheeting and Bracing
666
VII TUNNELLING
667
A Auger or Boring Method
668
B Jacking
669
C Mining Methods
670
2 Boring Machines
671
5 Tunnel Excavating Equipment
672
7 Compressed Air Equipment and Locks
673
IX FOUNDATIONS
674
X BACKFILLING
675
B Trench Backfilling Sequence
676
C Methods of Compaction
677
XI PIPE STORM SEWERS
680
D Manholes and Inlets
682
B Rectangular Channels
683
2 Culverts and Siphons
684
B Grouted Riprap
685
B Principal Traffic Arteries
688
XVI CONSTRUCTION RECORDS
689
PLANNING AND DESIGN EXAMPLES
691
B Regional BMP Siting Considerations
693
C General Design Criteria
694
D Recommended Regional BMP Facilities Plan
695
G Cost Estimates
697
B Recent History of Infrastructure Needs
698
3 Recreation Needs
703
4 Highway Needs
706
D Financing the MultiPurpose Project
710
2 Excavation
711
3 TieIn to Street Improvement Project
712
4 Other Savings
713
H References
714
INDEX
715
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Founded in 1928, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work toward the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of the global water environment. The WEF network includes water quality professionals from 76 Member Associations in 30 countries. Its headquarters is in Alexandria, Virginia. The American Society of Civil Engineers is a leading professional organization of civil engineers. Founded in 1853, ASCE has more than 133,000 members worldwide.

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