Design in Nature: Learning from Trees
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 28, 1998 - Architecture - 276 pages
The chicken bone which you nibbled and threw away yesterday was a high-tech product! In fact it was a superlative light-weight design functionally adapted to the mechanical requirements. No engineer in the world has as yet been able to copy this structural member, which is excellently optimized in its external shape and its internal architecture as regards minimum weight and maximum strength.
The tree trunk on which you recently carved your initials has also over the course of its life, steadily improved its internal and external structure and adapted itself optimally to new loads. In the course of its biomechanical self-optimization, it will heal the notch you cut as speedily as possible, in order to repair even the smallest weak point, which might otherwise cost it its life in the next storm.
This book is dedicated to the understanding of this biomechanical optimization of shape. And not only that: With the knowledge of these perfect processes of self-optimization in nature, techniques for the improvement of mechanical structural members could be developed. Industry already uses them. Nature shows us the way to eco-design, to machines in accordance with nature's laws governing structures and shapes.
CLAUS MATTHECK: Born in Dresden, Germany in 1947. Study of physics in Dresden, PhD in theoretical physics in 1973. Habilitation in the field of damage control in 1985. Lectures on biomechanics at the University of Karlsruhe. Head of the Department of Biomechanics of the Research Centre in Karlsruhe, where the results described in this book were obtained. Several awards in science and literature.
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Prof Mattheck explains very lucidly how engineers who wants to evolve the best engineering design of components- with high strength and light weight in general- can learnn from nature this art . The book is very stimulating to engineering mechanics students.
The Minimum on Mechanics
Thermal Expansion and Thermal Stresses
The Finite Element Method FEM
Notches and Notch Stresses
Overview of the Mechanics
What Is a Good Mechanical Design?
The Axiom of Uniform Stress and How Computer Methods Derive from It
Failure of ThickWalled Wooden Tubes by CrossSectional Flattening
The Tree as a ThinWalled Tube
The Open CrossSection The LoadDependent Chameleon
The Devils Ear
Fatal Failure or Last Resort?
The Wind Breakage of ShallowRooters
The Beginning of the End
ComputerAided Optimization Growth in the Computer
Away with the Ballast
The StressIncrementControlled SKO Method
Presentation of the Methods at a Glance
The Mechanics of Trees and the SelfOptimization of Tree Shape
The Top Rules
The Quest for Light
The Axiom of Uniform Stress and Tree Shape
From the HighTech Connection to the Point of Potential Breakage
Risk Only with Incorrect Loading
The Tension Fork
The Compression Fork
Ingenious Anchors with a Penchant for Social Contacts
Points of Potential Breakage are Speedily Repaired
Mechanical Companionship with Inanimate Objects
Species Difference as a Mechanical Handicap
From First Kiss to LifeLong Marriage
The Cross Weld
Merciless Welding Artist
Advantages of the Social Behaviour of Trees for the Species
The Internal Diary as a Consequence of the External Situation
Reaction Wood and Helical Grain in the Sawn Section
The Sawn Section Through Healed Wounds
The Sick Report of the Annual Rings
A Dead Branch Is Treated Like a Steel Tube
The Trees Marriage in the Sawn Section
Summary of the Rules for Annual Ring Design
The Fear of Shear Stress
How Does a Tree Break?
Can Trees Really Not Shrink?
UltraLight and Very Strong by Continuous Optimization of Shape
Healing of a Femur Fracture
The Consequences of Hip Prostheses for the Femur
The Vertebral Arch A Weak Point?
MicroFrameworks as Pressure Distributor Dash Pot and LightWeight Internal Architecture
The Wanderings of the Trabeculae in the Search for Pure Axial Loading
Bony Frameworks and Tree Frameworks Compared
The Reasons Why Bones Are Better at Adapting Their Shape
ShapeOptimized by Success in the Lottery of Heredity
Thorn Shape and Load Direction
Why a Shell Theory Is Inadequate for Shape Optimization
Tortoises and Nuts
UltraLight but Highly Specialized
A Functional Identity
Buttress Roots from the Standpoint of Bracing
Shape Optimization by Growth in Engineering Design
Shape Optimization of ThreeDimensional Components
Design Target and Realization
Sensitization by Specialization
Ecodesign and ClosetoNature Computer Empiricism
New Examples of Application in SelfExplanatory Illustrations