Design of the Illumination of the New York City Carnegie Libraries

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1908 - Libraries - 572 pages
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Page 569 - Lamps for lighting low bookshelves screened from view by opaque parabolic reflectors. Lamps for lighting wall bookcases, backed by opaque trough reflectors. (12) Lamps for lighting free standing bookcases and reading tables screened from view by green plated glass domes. (13) Lamps for lighting exhibition racks screened by reflectors with green celluloid covers. (14) Wall bracket and column bracket lamps provided with deep enamelled glass diffusing shades of sufficient depth to hide the lamp. Frosted...
Page 556 - Edison lamps, and the error was not discovered until it was too late to complete further measurements with lower candle-power lamps in time for presentation in this paper.
Page 571 - The lighting design should aim to secure (1) sufficient illumination on the reading tables and book shelves to meet the demands of a wide class of readers of various ages and conditions of eyesight, taking into account the fine print in some of the books and the difficulty of reading titles of books in position on the shelves. Some of the books are worn...
Page 569 - Illumination (vertical) on bookshelves il/2 to 4 footcandles. Illumination (horizontal) on bookshelves 4 to 8 foot-candles. (6) Combination of general and localized lighting designed to secure maximum illumination on the working spaces at minimum cost of operation for the required results. Ceiling pendants for general illumination designed for efficient use of tungsten lamps. (7) Flexibility. Design of switching arrangements for economical use of light. Lights near windows placed on same circuits...
Page 538 - Sufficient illumination on the reading tables and book shelves to meet the demands of a wide class of readers of various ages and conditions of eyesight, taking into account the fine print in some of the books and the difficulty of reading titles of books in position on the shelves. Some of the books are worn MARKS : ILLUMINATION OF CARNEGIE LIBRARIES by frequent handling, and the titles become more or less obscured.
Page 569 - The following is a summary of the features of the installation: — "(1) Freedom from glare. No unshaded lamps. Intrinsic brightness of lighting sources, 1/10 of a candle-power per square inch. (2) General illumination combined with localized illumination. (3) General illumination one foot-candle on horizontal working plane. (4) Illumination (horizontal) on reading tables, average working conditions, 5 foot-candles. (5) Illumination (vertical) on bookshelves 1% to 4 foot-candles.
Page 541 - ... of the vestibule and small office which are separated from the rest of the room by glazed partitions, this floor constitutes one large room. In the front of the room is the circulating department, in the middle the application and delivery desk, and in the rear portion the free standing book stacks and the reference room. These departments are separated from each other by low rails or low bookshelves. Along the walls of the room are bookcases about 7 feet high. The walls are cream color and the...
Page 554 - G and H. in use, extend 9 inches beyond the edge of the case but when out of use, are swung over the top of the rack in order to leave Fig.
Page 553 - Ceiling outlet, electric. — Bracket outlet, electric. — Bracket outlet, combination. — Baseboard receptacle. —Floor outlet, flush. — -Floor outlet, extension. —Gas outlet. —Wall outlet, shelf. —Switch. — Furniture outlet. Fig. ii. — Key to Wiring Symbols.

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