Developing the Workforce, Shaping the Future: Transformation of Madagascar s Post-basic Education

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World Bank Publications, Feb 4, 2009 - Education - 152 pages
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With challenges similar to those faced by a number of low income countries, Madagascar faces critical policy choices with respect to post-basic education. Enrolment ratios in senior secondary education and tertiary education are 10 percent and 3 percent, respectively, among the lowest in the world. Critical skill shortages and pervasive inequities in access necessitate changes in the quantity and quality of education and skills. The increasing number of basic education completers and demographic growth are mounting pressure on the government to expand access to post-basic education. Responding to these economic and social challenges, the government has made the transformation of education one of the key priorities of the Madagascar Action Plan. However, low domestic revenues and competing demands from other sectors, including basic education, limit the room for maneuver. Caught between these two pincers, policy makers often choose to sacrifice quality over expanding access or are unable to develop a long term vision. 'Developing the Workforce, Shaping the Future' presents Madagascar s core challenges and argues persuasively that the time for transforming the post-basic education system is now. It documents the poor performance of the post-basic education system in the areas of quality and relevance, internal efficiency, equity and financial inefficiency. The report presents a sequence of prioritization of reforms, focusing on improving education content and linkages with the economy, increasing coverage cost-effectively through the adoption of new planning norms for public institutions, utilization of the private sector and innovations in open/flexible learning and creating the enabling framework through reforms of governance, finance and management. The report provides a convincing reform scenario for a low income country, with actions to be undertaken in the medium and long term to sustain the development of post-basic education in an environment of limited public resources and implementation capacity. Policy makers in other developing countries will find this report useful to gauge their own strategies for post basic education.
 

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Contents

FIGURE 8 Firstyear University Dropout Rates by University 200405
11
FIGURE 9 Student Survival JSE to Higher Education
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FIGURE 10 Distribution of the Population by Highest Educational Attainment and Income 2004
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Net Enrollment Rates per Income Level in 2001 and 2005
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3 EducationLabor Market Linkages
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Labor Status of the Population 2005
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FIGURE 12 Crosscountry Comparison of Adult Educational Attainment 200105
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FIGURE 13 Average Years of Education by Age Group Employed Labor Force 2001 and 2005
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FIGURE 14 Educational Attainment of Employed Labor Force Participants Under Age 30 2001 and 2005
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FIGURE 16a Share of Population That Has Attained at Least Grade 9 by Age Group 2005
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FIGURE 17 Distribution of Employed Labor Force by Highest Qualification Obtained and Annual EducationTraining Awards 2005
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FIGURE 18 Educational Attainment of Employed Labor Forces by Region 2005
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FIGURE 19 Education Levels in MAP Target Regions 2005
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FIGURE 20 Return to Education by Educational LevelWage and Salary Earners 2005
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BOX 1 Observations on the Availability of Middle Managers and Skilled Technicians
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Improving Relevance and Quality in Postbasic Education and Training
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TABLE 2 Growth Sector Skill Needs and Labor Supply
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FIGURE 21 Typology of Technological Occupations in the Knowledge Economy
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FIGURE 22 Madagascars Senior Secondary Education SSE Cycle
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BOX 2 Alternative Models for Secondary Education
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FIGURE 23 Structure of Madagascar TVET system 2007 Prereform
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FIGURE 24 Graduates of Applied Science Engineering and Technology Programs 200506
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BOX 3 Strategies for Shifting to LMD in Selected European Countries
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5 Access and Equity in Postbasic Education
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FIGURE 25 NIOS Process for Learning System Development
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BOX 4 Main Features of the National Institute of Open School India
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BOX 5 Ten Characteristics of Successful Open Universities
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FIGURE 26 Private Education in Madagascar
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FIGURE 27 Share of Private Sector in Secondary Education Institutions by Region
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TABLE 9 Determinants of Training and Impact on Earnings Formal Industry Sector 2005
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Issues and Reforms in Public Expenditure and Finance Management
79
FIGURE 31 Total Public Education Expenditure as Percent of GDP 19962006
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TABLE 10 Allocation of Public Education Expenditure by Subsector 200207
81
TABLE 11 Allocation of Public Capital Expenditures in Education by Subsector 200207
82
TABLE 12 Per Student Public Recurrent Expenditure by Level of Education Constant 2006 Prices
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FIGURE 33 Composition of Recurrent Public Expenditure by Education Subsector 2007
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FIGURE 35 Composition of Recurrent Expenditure in Higher Education 2006
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FIGURE 36 Supplementary Hours as Percent of Total University Teaching Hours 2006
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Reforms in Management and Governance
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BOX 6 Model for a Postbasic Education Reform Commission
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TABLE 13 Two Scenarios for Government Regulation
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9 A Strategic Framework for Postbasic Education in Madagascar
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TABLE 14 Framework for Strategic Development of Postbasic Education
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The Reform of Basic Education in Madagascar Lessons and Implications for Postbasic Education
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FIGURE 37 New Structure of Basic Education
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FIGURE 38 Proposed Curriculum Grades 110
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Statistical Annex
115
Table 1 Public and Private Enrollment by Educational SubSector 19972006
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Table 2 Schools and Teachers by Cycle
117
Table 3 Average Years of Education of the Employed Labor Force by Age Group
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SalaryWage Earners All Sectors 2001 and 2005
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SalaryWage Earners Industrial Sector 2005
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Table 6 Estimated Stochastic Production Frontier Models 2004
123
Table 7 Public Expenditures on Education by SubSector Ariary
124
Table 8 Public Expenditures on Education by SubSector US
125
References
127
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