Development of Normal Fetal Movements: The First 25 Weeks of Gestation
This work sees the light for various reasons. There is a general lack of detailed information about the earliest stages of human motor development. The reasons for this are explained more fully in the Introduction; here we may simply state that, apart from their intrinsic interest, earlier phenomena are fundamental to the comprehension of later phenomena rooted in them, whether pathological or normal. This is especially so in the rapidly - veloping young organism. At birth the neonate is catapulted into a profoundly different physical and social envir- ment requiring extremely diverse functioning: suffice it to mention aerial respiration, no longer being fed through the placenta and the cord, and the full impact of gravity on neonatal movements. The neonate generally adapts smoothly to the transition, as it has been equipped to do so during the 9 months of pregnancy. However, the study of the early stages of fetal motor development should not be exclusively directed towards the und- standing of functioning in the neonate.
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1 General Movements
2 Startles Twitches and Clonuses
3 Hiccups Yawning and Gasping
4 Fetal Breathing Movements
5 Swallowing Sucking and Handedness as Inferred from Fetal Thumb Sucking
6 Localized Movements
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13 weeks 25 weeks active sleep adult amniotic fluid amniotic sac animals apnoeas areas begin birth body schema bouts brain brainstem Cambridge central pattern cerebral clonuses cluster co-twin cord cortical homunculus cycles of rest developmental display dizygotic elicited emerge emotions environment face facial expressions feet fetal behaviour fetal body fetal breathing movements fetal movements fetus fetuses fingers frequently function gasping gestational age half of pregnancy hand head hiccups human fetus hypoxia increase innervated intrapair stimulation intrauterine leg movements limbs localized movements lung maternal ments mirror neurons monozygotic twins motions mouth move muscle neonate nerve nervous system neural neurons newborn Normal Fetal Movements observed phase phenomena phrenic nerve Piontelli placenta postnatal Prechtl HFR pregnancy prenatal proprioceptive rapid eye movements reflex respiration sensory Severely premature infants so-called spinal spine startles studies sucking surface tactile tion tongue touch twin fetuses twitches ultrasound uterine wall utero vestibular yawning zygosity