Differential Item Functioning
Paul W. Holland, Howard Wainer
Routledge, Aug 6, 2012 - Psychology - 470 pages
Test fairness is a moral imperative for both the makers and the users of tests. This book focuses on methods for detecting test items that function differently for different groups of examinees and on using this information to improve tests. Of interest to all testing and measurement specialists, it examines modern techniques used routinely to insure test fairness. Three of these relevant to the book's contents are:
* detailed reviews of test items by subject matter experts and members of the major subgroups in society (gender, ethnic, and linguistic) that will be represented in the examinee population
* comparisons of the predictive validity of the test done separately for each one of the major subgroups of examinees
* extensive statistical analyses of the relative performance of major subgroups of examinees on individual test items.
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administration analogy items analysis antonym assumption average biased BIMAIN Black examinees chapter DIF analyses DIF detection DIF items DIF screening DIF statistics DIF values differential item functioning distractor distribution Dorans Educational Testing Service effect Equation equicontinuous example factors focal and reference focal group group differences Guidelines Hispanic hypotheses impact IRT DIF IRT model IRT-LR item bias item difficulty item parameters item response theory LISCOMP logistic logistic regression loglinear Mantel—Haenszel matching criterion matching variable mathematics McPeek measure MH D-DIF statistics negative DIF nonresponse odds ratio performance population potential for bias pretest question random effects model randomized DIF study Rasch model reference and focal reference group reﬂect regression sample Schmitt score level scoring method standard error STD P-DIF studied item Table target ability test bias test development test form test items test score Thissen tion trace lines unidimensional variance verbal Wainer women