Differential Genotypic and Root Type Responses to Aluminum Toxic and Compacted Subsoil Layers Using Neutron Radiography
Neutron radiographic images of maize and soybean roots revealed that the tap, basal, and lateral root lengths of maize cv. CMS-36 were not significantly affected by Al-toxic Porter subsoil, illustrating their tolerance to the toxicity of this soil. Root elongation in the Al-toxic Porter subsoil suggests that, in the soybean line PI 416937, tap and lateral roots are Al-tolerant, and basal roots are only moderately Al-tolerant. Although basal roots of the maize cv. SA-3 and soybean cv. Davis were found to be Al-tolerant, tap and lateral root lengths were severely reduced in the Al-toxic subsoil. The subsoil compaction experiment demonstrated that taproots of maize SA-3 and soybean PI 416937 penetrated the compacted subsoil layer, while only basal roots of maize cv. La Posta and soybean cv. Weber penetrated the compacted layer. On the other hand, soybean cv. Perry moderately penetrated the compacted subsoil layer with both tap and basal roots.
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BIOASSAY SCREENING EXPERIMENTS
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21 days ability acid soil Al-sensitive Al-tolerant Al-tolerant cultivars Al-toxic soil Al-toxic subsoil aluminum tolerance aluminum toxicity appears basal root lengths basal roots bioassay bulk density Carter compacted layer compacted subsoil layers compared containers core Cornell crop Davis days after planting determine drought effect Essex et al evaluated experiment field Figure four Genetic genotypes growing homogeneous identified increased initiation lateral root lengths limed maize and soybean maize cultivars maize cv mechanisms methods Mg m║ middle neutron radiography nutrient solution observed Perry plant root produced reduced relative root lengths responses to Al-toxic root growth root penetration root type responses screening seedlings selection sensitive shoot showed significant significantly Soil Sci soybean cultivars soybean cv species stress subsoil compaction suggested Table taproot techniques tolerant cultivars topsoil Tuxpe˝o vary Weber yield Zobel