Disability Discrimination Law, Evidence and Testimony: A Comprehensive Reference Manual for Lawyers, Judges and Disability Professionals

Front Cover
American Bar Association, 2008 - Law - 703 pages
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This book covers employment, state and local government, public accommodations, telecommunications, housing and zoning, education, and criminal and civil institutions. It addresses practical ways to maximize the benefits of the client-lawyer relationship, including potentially divisive questions surrounding the need for accommodations and the ethical duties of lawyers to clients with disabilities. Also discusses expert evidence and testimony in disability discrimination cases. Includes numerous appendices to assist you in your research of disability discrimination cases.
 

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Contents

A HISTORY OF DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAW
1
102 The Abuse of Persons with Mental Disabilities in Civil Institutions
4
b Rights in Institutions
5
c Rights of Citizenship Lost
6
103 The Rights of People in Mental Institutions
7
a The Right to Treatment
8
b Rights in Involuntary Commitment Hearings
10
c Deinstitutionalization
11
ii Fundamental Alteration Exception
252
iii Specific Types of Required Modifications
253
903 Architectural and Other Barriers to Goods and
256
b Readily Achievable for Existing Structures
258
c Personal Devices and Services Accessibility of Special Goods
260
904 New Construction and Alterations
261
b Alterations
263
d Elevator Exemption
265

104 Rehabilitation and CommunityBased Rights and Services
13
a Federal Legislation
14
ii The Rehabilitation Act
15
iii The Education of All Handicapped Childrens Act
16
iv Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act
17
b SelfDetermination and Personal Autonomy
18
a SelfAdvocacy
19
b The ADA and Its Limitations
20
106 ADA Enactment Implementation and Enforcement
22
b Early Warnings
23
c ADA Litigation in the Federal Courts
24
ii Qualified Person with a Disability
26
iii Essential Job Functions
27
v Direct Threat to Health or Safety
28
vi Reasonable Accommodation
29
107 Conclusion
30
LEGAL OVERVIEW OF KEY STATUTES AND SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY LIMITATIONS
33
i Findings and Purposes
34
iii Reasonable Accommodations and Modifications
35
b Rehabilitation Act
36
c FHAA
37
e FMLA
38
f PA
39
ii Client Assistance Program
40
vi TechnologyRelated Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act
41
ix PA for Voter Assistance
42
b ADA Title I
43
c FMLA
44
d ADA Title II
45
e Section 504 and the IDEA
48
203 State Laws
49
DISABILITY DEFINITIONS IN FEDERAL AND STATE DISCRIMINATION LAWS
51
a ThreePronged Disability Definition
52
b Substantial Limitation
54
i Mitigation
56
c Major Life Activities
58
d Associating with Persons with a Known Disability
60
e Specific DisabilityBased Exclusions
61
f Otherwise Qualified Direct Threat
63
302 IDEA
65
303 FMLA
66
304 State Laws
68
ENFORCEMENT UNDER FEDERAL AND STATE DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAWS
71
Employment
73
Public Services
78
Public Accommodations
80
Telecommunications
82
Miscellaneous
83
402 IDEA
85
403 FHAA
88
404 FMLA
90
405 ACAA
91
406 State Discrimination Law
92
b Public Services
93
c Public Accommodations
94
d Housing
96
ATTORNEYS FEES IN FEDERAL AND STATE DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION CASES
99
b Prevailing Parties
102
ii Defendants
104
c Reasonable Fees and Costs
105
502 State Attorneys Fees Statutes
106
b Public Services
107
d Housing
108
EFFECTIVE REPRESENTATION OF CLIENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND THE CLIENTLAWYER RELATIONSHIP
109
602 The Clients Perspective
110
b Communicating with a Lawyer
111
iii Be Forthcoming About Any Legally Relevant Disability
112
d Paying a Lawyer
115
i Common Classes of Disabilities
116
b Communicating with Clients
123
c Legal Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodations
124
d SelfDetermination for Clients
125
Rights and Money
126
604 The Case Perspective
127
b Civil Rights
128
c Benefits
129
EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION
131
b Rehabilitation Act
134
ii Section 502
135
iv Section 504
136
c ADA Title I
137
ii Definition of EmployerEmployee Jurisdiction Standing
138
d State Laws
140
702 ADA Disability Definition As Applied to Employment
142
703 Qualified Individual with a Disability Judicial Estoppel Direct Threat
145
c Judicial Estoppel
149
d Direct Threat
151
ii Direct Threat to Self
153
705 Medical Leave
156
b FMLA
157
i Definition of Covered Employer
158
Hours of Service
159
iv Serious Health Condition
160
v Notice Requirements
161
vi Twelve Weeks of Leave
162
706 Medical Exams and Inquiries Confidentiality
164
c PostOffer
166
e Voluntary
167
g Confidentiality Requirements
168
708 Reasonable Accommodation
171
b Undue Hardship
174
c Types of Accommodations
175
ii Job ReassignmentTransfers
176
iii Parttime or Modified Work Schedules Medical Leave
178
iv Changing Supervisors or Supervisory Methods Training
179
709 Proving Discrimination
180
b Prima Facie Case
182
i Material Adverse Change Mixed Motive
183
c Legitimate Reason
184
e Retaliation Harassment Hostile Work Environment
186
f Reasonable Accommodation McDonnell Douglas
187
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ANS OTHER PUBLIC SERVICES
189
802 Section 504
190
803 ADA Title II
191
ii Qualified Individual with a DisabilityDirect Threat
192
iii General Prohibitions
195
iv Reasonable Modifications
196
v Integration Mandate
197
vi Exclusionary Eligibility Criteria
198
viii Effective Communication
199
Discrimination Generally
200
Existing Facilities
201
New Construction and Alterations
202
Public Transportation
203
ii Paratransit Demand Responsive Systems
204
iii New and Existing Facilities
205
804 State Laws Generally
206
805 Integrated Services
208
b InstitutionBased Programs
210
c CommunityBased Services
211
d Temporary Assistance to Needy Families TANF
213
806 Termination of Parental Rights
214
807 Correctional Facilities
215
b Lawsuits Challenging Prison and Jail Conditions
217
808 Court Access Jury Service
220
b Jury Access
222
i State Laws
223
ii Court Decisions
224
809 Fitness to Practice a Profession
225
810 Voting
228
811 Program Access Architectural Barriers
232
812 Public Transportation
234
b Paratransit
236
PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR
239
b Scope and Coverage
240
c General Nondiscrimination Principles
244
ii Unequal Benefit
245
iii Separate Benefit
246
vi Associational Disability
247
x Smoking
249
902 Specific ADA Title III Requirements
250
a Eligibility Criteria
251
g Certification
266
a Nondiscrimination Generally
267
b Fixed Route System
268
c Demand Responsive System
269
e Specified Public Transportation
270
f Airlines
273
906 Insurance
275
b Health and Longterm Disability
276
c Life and Other Insurance
277
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND THE INTERNET
281
1002 Telecommunications
283
b Telecommunications Act
286
ii Requirements for Accessibility and Usability
287
iii Requirements for Compatibility with Peripheral Devices and Specialized Customer Premises Equipment
288
b Section 508
289
i Federal AgenciesDepartments
290
ii EIT Standards
291
iii Functional Performance Criteria
292
iv Information Documentation and Support
293
1004 State Laws
294
HOUSING AND ZONING
297
b Constitutional Considerations
298
1102 FHAA
299
b Exemptions and Exceptions
300
c Direct Threat to Health or Safety Controlled Substances
301
i Refusal to Sell Rent or Negotiate
302
v Availability of Dwellings
303
e Discrimination in Residential Real Estate Transactions
304
iv Terms and Conditions for Making Loans or Other Financial Assistance
305
f Discrimination Because of Handicap
306
iii Reasonable Accommodations
307
1103 Section 504 ADA Titles II and III
308
1104 State Laws
309
b Zoning Group Homes
310
1105 Public Housing
312
1106 Private Housing
314
b State Laws
316
1107 Group Homes Zoning and Land Use
317
a Maximum Occupancy Restrictions
318
b Minimum Distance Requirements
319
c Special RegulationsEnforcement
320
d Restrictive Covenants
321
e Reasonable Accommodations
322
EDUCATION EXAMS AND LICENSING
325
b Individualized Education Program
328
c Procedural Safeguards
330
ii Judicial Review Attorneys Fees
334
iii Placement in Alternative Settings Disciplinary Procedures
335
iv Time Limits for Due Process Complaints
337
v Foster and Homeless Children Surrogates
338
1202 Section 504 Rehab Act ADA Title II
340
b ADA
341
1203 Medicaid EPSDT
342
b Medicaid
344
c State Law
345
a FAPE Reimbursement
346
i Educational Benefit
347
ii State Laws That Require More Than an Educational Benefit
348
iii Tuition Reimbursement
350
iv IEP
351
v Limits on FAPE
352
b Related Services
353
ii Medical Services
355
c Mainstreaming
356
d Residential Settings
357
e Extended School Year Compensatory Education
358
ii Compensatory Education
359
f Suspensions and Other Discipline
360
ii State Laws
361
ii Disciplinary and Safety Issues
363
h Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies Statutes of Limitations
364
i Section 504 and ADA Issues Particularly Athletics
365
1206 Adults PostSecondary Education Access to Professions
366
a Colleges and Universities
367
ii Qualified to Participate
368
iii Reasonable Accommodations
369
c Professional Licensing and Exams
370
ii Reasonable Accommodations
371
MENTAL DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAW
373
a Individualized Decisionmaking Therapeutic Jurisprudence
374
b Selfdetermination
375
c Stigma and Sanism
376
d Pretextual Decisionmaking
377
e Jails and Prisons for Persons with Severe Mental Disabilities
378
1302 Key Mental Disability Legal Concepts
379
ii Habilitation
381
b Dangerousness
382
c The Least Restrictive Alternative
383
1303 InstitutionBased Rights
384
ii Shortterm Inpatient Adult Commitment
385
iii Extended Inpatient Adult Commitment
386
iv Mental Retardation Developmental Disabilities and Substance Abuse
388
v Procedural Due Process
389
vi RecommitmentReleasePeriodic Reviews
390
vii Outpatient Commitment Conditional Release
391
viii Involuntary Commitment of Minors
393
b Rights in Institutions
394
ii Protection from Harm
396
iii Least Restrictive Alternatives
397
v Patients Bills of Rights
398
1304 CommunityBased Care Protective Services
399
i Pennhurst Litigation and its Aftermath
400
ii Integrated Services in the Community
402
iii Medicaid and ADA Title II
403
iv The Right to Remain in a Facility
404
Health and Longterm Disability
405
i Federal Preemption ERISA
406
ii Mental Health Parity
407
iii ADA and Section 504
408
1306 Mentally Disordered Offenders
411
ii ADA Section 504
414
EXPERT EVIDENCE AND TESTIMONY
417
1402 Admissibility of Specialized Knowledge
418
a Admissibility
419
Theories Techniques and Applications
420
iv PostKumho Considerations
422
1403 Experts Qualifications
424
a Education and Training
425
iii Physiatrists Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
426
iv Psychologists
427
v Nurses
428
vii Audiologists
429
ix Optometrists
430
x Architects
431
1404 Limitations on Expert Evidence and Testimony
433
ii TreatmentRelated Privileges Generally
434
iv PsychiatristPatient Privilege
435
v PsychologistPatient Privilege
436
vii AttorneyClient Privilege
438
ii Ultimate Issue
439
c Challenging Disability Experts in Cross Examination
440
1405 The Existence of a Disability
441
a Existence of a Covered Disorder or Condition
443
b Existence of an Excluded Disorder or Condition Direct Threat
444
Substantial Limitation of a Major Life Activity
446
ii Major Life Activity
447
iv Record of Impairment
449
1406 Qualified Person with a Disability
450
1407 Reasonable AccommodationModifications
451
1408 Economic Expertise
452
b Compensatory Damages
454
1409 Architectural Transportation and Other Physical Barriers
455
1410 Conclusion
456
EMPLOYMENT
457
PUBLIC SERVICES STATE GOVERNMENT
523
PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS
549
Housing 605
605
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF SUPREME COURT CASES
637
SUMMARY OF SUPREME COURT CASES
645
INDEX
663
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