Discovering Cell Mechanisms: The Creation of Modern Cell Biology
Between 1940 and 1970 pioneers in the new field of cell biology discovered the operative parts of cells and their contributions to cell life. They offered mechanistic accounts that explained cellular phenomena by identifying the relevant parts of cells, the biochemical operations they performed, and the way in which these parts and operations were organised to accomplish important functions. Cell biology was a revolutionary science but in this book it also provides fuel for yet another revolution, one that focuses on the very conception of science itself. Laws have traditionally been regarded as the primary vehicle of explanation, but in the emerging philosophy of science it is mechanisms that do the explanatory work. Bechtel emphasises how mechanisms were discovered, focusing especially on the way in which new instruments made these inquiries possible. He also describes how new journals and societies provided institutional structure to this new enterprise.
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activity amino acids animals appeared artifact ASCB Bechtel Bensley biochemical biochemistry biologists Biophysical Brachet Caspersson cell biology cell fractionation cell membranes cell structure cellular centrifugation Chapter characterized chemical chemistry citric acid cycle Claude Claude's complex components cristae cytochrome cytologists cytology cytoplasm decomposition developed disciplines Duve electron micrographs electron microscopy electron transport chain endoplasmic reticulum enzymes ergastoplasm evidence example fermentation Figure fixation focus focused function glycolysis Golgi apparatus granules Hogeboom hydrogen identified initial investigators involved isolated Journal laboratory Lehninger living cells lysosome mechanism mechanistic explanation metabolism microscope microsomes mitochondria molecular molecules Novikoff nucleus operations organelles organization osmium oxidative phosphorylation oxygen Palade Palade's particles phenomena phenomenon phosphate Porter produced proposed protein synthesis protoplasm pyruvic acid reactions respiration ribosomes Rockefeller Institute role scientists secretory sections Sjostrand Society for Cell staining studies substance substrate succinic succinic acid techniques tion tissue tumor University Warburg