Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine

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University of Chicago Press, 1993 - Medical - 617 pages
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Kenneth F. Schaffner compares the practice of biological and medical research and shows how traditional topics in philosophy of science—such as the nature of theories and of explanation—can illuminate the life sciences. While Schaffner pays some attention to the conceptual questions of evolutionary biology, his chief focus is on the examples that immunology, human genetics, neuroscience, and internal medicine provide for examinations of the way scientists develop, examine, test, and apply theories.

Although traditional philosophy of science has regarded scientific discovery—the questions of creativity in science—as a subject for psychological rather than philosophical study, Schaffner argues that recent work in cognitive science and artificial intelligence enables researchers to rationally analyze the nature of discovery. As a philosopher of science who holds an M.D., he has examined biomedical work from the inside and uses detailed examples from the entire range of the life sciences to support the semantic approach to scientific theories, addressing whether there are "laws" in the life sciences as there are in the physical sciences. Schaffner's novel use of philosophical tools to deal with scientific research in all of its complexity provides a distinctive angle on basic questions of scientific evaluation and explanation.
 

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Contents

The Scope and Aim of This Book
1
Logic
8
THREE Theories and Laws in Biology and Medicine
64
The Metatheoretical Function of Evolutionary
90
FOUR The Logic and Methodology of Empirical Testing
129
Local and Global Approaches
169
GLOBAL EVALUATION AND EXTENDED
193
A Mendelian Example Illustrating
252
SEVEN Historicity Historical Explanations
325
Sober
354
The Hierarchical Turn in Evolutionary
360
EIGHT Functional Analysis and Teleological
362
NINE Reduction and Reductionism in Biology
411
The Problem of Analogy in Reduction
481
TEN Conclusion and Research Issues
517
Notes
525

Six Explanation and Causation in Biology
261
ing
281
The Conditional Component
299
The Ontic Component and Process Metaphys
305

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